Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Review of Its Efficacy.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 307-16
Prazeres AM, Nascimento AL, Fontenelle LF

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. HubMed – depression


Cortical-amygdalar circuit dysfunction in a genetic mouse model of serotonin deficiency.

J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 6; 33(10): 4505-13
Dzirasa K, Kumar S, Sachs BD, Caron MG, Nicolelis MA

Although the majority of first-line antidepressants increase brain serotonin and rare polymorphisms in tryptophan hydroxlase-2 (Tph2), the rate-limiting enzyme in the brain serotonin synthesis pathway, have been identified in cohorts of subjects with major depressive disorder, the circuit level alterations that results from serotonergic hypofunction remain poorly understood. Here we use chronic multicircuit neurophysiological recordings to characterize functional interactions across cortical and limbic circuits in mice engineered to express a human loss-of-function depression allele Tph2-(R441H) [Tph2 knockin (Tph2KI)]. Our results show that Tph2KI mice exhibit increased intra-network synchrony within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basal amygdala (AMY) and increased inter-network synchrony between these two brain networks. Moreover, we demonstrate that chronic treatment with fluoxetine reverses several of the circuit alterations observed within Tph2KI mice. Together, our findings establish a functional link between functional hyposerotonergia and altered mPFC-AMY network dynamics. HubMed – depression


Endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression in a nociceptive synapse requires coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic transcription and translation.

J Neurosci. 2013 Mar 6; 33(10): 4349-58
Yuan S, Burrell BD

Endocannabinoids (eCBs) play an important role in long-term regulation of synaptic signaling in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, the role of transcription- and translation-dependent processes in presynaptic versus postsynaptic neurons was examined during eCB-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CNS of the leech. Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of non-nociceptive afferents elicits eCB-dependent long-term depression (eCB-LTD) heterosynaptically in nociceptive synapses that lasts at least 2 h. Bath application of emetine, a protein synthesis inhibitor, blocked eCB-LTD after afferent LFS or exogenous eCB application, indicating that this depression was translation dependent. Bath application of actinomycin D, an irreversible RNA synthesis inhibitor, or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole 1-?-d-ribofurandoside (DRB), a reversible RNA synthesis inhibitor, also prevented eCB-LTD. Selective injection of DRB or emetine into the presynaptic or postsynaptic neuron before LFS indicated that eCB-LTD required transcription and translation in the postsynaptic neuron but only translation in the presynaptic cell. Depression observed immediately after LFS was also blocked when these transcription- and translation-dependent processes were inhibited. It is proposed that induction of eCB-LTD in this nociceptive synapse requires the coordination of presynaptic protein synthesis and postsynaptic mRNA and protein synthesis. These findings provide significant insights into both eCB-based synaptic plasticity and understanding how activity in non-nociceptive afferents modulates nociceptive pathways. HubMed – depression