Cholinergic Modulation of Food and Drug Satiety and Withdrawal.

Cholinergic modulation of food and drug satiety and withdrawal.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Physiol Behav. 2012 Mar 27;
Avena NM, Rada PV

Although they comprise only a small portion of the neurons in the region, cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum appear to play an important role in the regulation of various appetitive behaviors, in part, through their interactions with mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems. In this review, we describe studies that suggest that the activity of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and cholinergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) affect feeding behavior. In vivo microdialysis studies in rat have revealed that the cessation of a meal is associated with a rise in acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the NAc. ACh activation will suppress feeding, and this is also associated with an increase in synaptic accumulation of ACh. Further, we discuss how, in addition to their role in the ending of a meal, cholinergic interneurons in the NAc play an integral role in the cessation of drug use. Another cholinergic system involved in different aspects of appetitive behavior is the projection from the pedunculpontine nuclei directly to the VTA. Activation of this system enhances behaviors through activation of the mesolimbic DA system, and antagonism of ACh receptors in the VTA can reduce drug self-administration. Finally, we discuss the role of accumbens ACh in both drug and palatable food withdrawal. Studies reveal that accumbens ACh is increased during withdrawal from several different drugs of abuse (including cocaine, nicotine and morphine). This rise in extracellular levels of ACh, coupled with a decrease in extracellular levels of DA, is believed to contribute to an aversive state, which can manifest as behaviors associated with drug withdrawal. This theory has also been applied to studies of overeating and/or “food addiction,” and the findings suggest a similar imbalance in DA/ACh levels, which is associated with behavioral indications of drug-like withdrawal. In summary, cholinergic neurons play an important role in the modulation of both food and drug intake, as well as the aversive aspects of food- and drug-related addictive behaviors.
HubMed – addiction


Tumours of the bladder: What does the urologist expect from imaging?

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012 Mar 29;
Rouprêt M

Cancer of the bladder is the seventh most common of all cancers observed in France, and is the second urological cancer after prostate cancer. It is mainly related to nicotine addiction. When doing the initial tests, ultrasound examination of the bladder can enable the clinician to diagnose a polypoid tumour and thus avoid his having to organise diagnostic fibroscopy. When the bladder tumour infiltrates the detrusor muscle, the situation becomes life-threatening for the patient and radical treatment is envisaged. Uro-CT is the standard examination to characterise the lesion and describe its relationship with neighbouring organs. It is essential, and must be performed before endoscopic resection of the tumour, to be correctly interpreted. It is imperative for imaging to look for a synchronous lesion in the upper urinary tract (ureters, renal pelvis), because the presence of such a lesion changes the prognosis of the disease and the sequence of therapy, which is decided by the urologist in a multidisciplinary consultation.
HubMed – addiction


[A comparison of self-esteem in alcohol-dependent women and women who have become abstinent, against a control group.]

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Presse Med. 2012 Mar 29;
Guillon A, Chauveau-Clerc C, Courtois R, Bacq Y, Maugé D, Ballon N, Gaillard P

INTRODUCTION: Women’s addiction to alcohol remains a taboo subject, whereas one third of alcohol-dependent people are female. Social representations concerning them are very unfavorable. Their alcoholism is usually accompanied by strong feelings of guilt, depreciation and lowered self-esteem. There is little existing work about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent. This study’s goal is to compare the self-esteem of women who are alcohol-dependent and the self-esteem of women who have become abstinent in various domains (social, familial, professional). METHODS: The sample contained 71 women divided into three groups: 31 alcohol-dependent women (average age of 44.9); 20 alcohol-dependent women who had become abstinent for at least two months (average age of 44.7) and 20 women who formed the control group (average age of 44.4). The material was put together from the Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI, adult version of Coopersmith 1981). It includes 58 items divided into four sub-categories (general self-esteem, social, familial and professional) and a scale for falsehoods. The SEI was self-administered. The statistics were produced entirely with non-parametric tests: Mann-Whitley U Test for the comparison of two independent samples and Kruskal-Wallis Anova for the comparison of three independent samples. RESULTS: A significant difference was found for general self-esteem (P=0.001), familial (P=0.01) and professional (P=0.03) between the three groups of women (alcohol-dependent, alcohol-dependent who had become abstinent and women from the control group). There was no statistical difference for social self-esteem or the lying scale. There was a difference between alcohol-dependent women and the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.0001), familial self-esteem (P=0.01) and professional self-esteem (P=0.002), as well as between women who had become abstinent and women from the control group in general self-esteem (P=0.02), familial self-esteem (P=0.005) and professional self-esteem (P=0.07; ns). No difference was found between alcohol-dependent women and women who had become abstinent. CONCLUSION: This study has shown evidence that general, familial and professional self-esteem drops in alcohol-dependent women and in women who had become abstinent compared to a general population. There was no proof of any difference of self-esteem in women who had become abstinent and alcohol-dependent women, although abstinent women seemed to have better general and professional self-esteem while their familial self-esteem seemed to be lower. This study begs the question about self-esteem in women who have become abstinent suggests that self-esteem should be integrated into their treatment.
HubMed – addiction



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Richmond Outreach Center Draws Attention as More Churches Offer Addiction

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

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Filed under: Addiction Rehab

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Filed under: Addiction Rehab

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