Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated With a Sex-Dependent Functional Reorganization of a Brain Inhibitory Control Network.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with a sex-dependent functional reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2013 Apr 24;
Elton A, Tripathi SP, Mletzko T, Young J, Cisler JM, James GA, Kilts CD

Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – addiction


The Relationship between Recent Stressful Life Events, Personality Traits, Perceived Family Functioning and Internet Addiction among College Students.

Stress Health. 2013 Apr 25;
Yan W, Li Y, Sui N

Internet addiction (IA) is an emerging social and mental health issue among youths. Analysis of risk factors, as well as their interactions, is crucial for understanding the development of IA. This study investigated the relationship between recent stressful life events, personality traits, perceived family functioning and IA in 892 college students. Subjects were classified into categories (non-addicted, mild IA or severe IA) using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Stressful life events, personality traits and family functioning were assessed using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, respectively. The results indicated that compared with non-addicted subjects, subjects with severe IA (9.98%) had lower family functioning, lower extraversion, higher neuroticism and psychoticism, and more stressful life events, and subjects with mild IA (11.21%) had higher neuroticism and more health and adaptation problems. Neuroticism and health and adaptation problems were potential predictors of IA. An interaction effect between psychoticism and total life stress on IA was also found. These findings highlight the role of personality traits and life stress and their interactions in college students’ IA. Further research should explore the mechanisms underlying the interaction effect of psychoticism with life stress on IA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – addiction


Multiple controls exerted by 5-HT2C receptors upon basal ganglia function: from physiology to pathophysiology.

Exp Brain Res. 2013 Apr 25;
De Deurwaerdère P, Lagière M, Bosc M, Navailles S

Serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical structures involved in the control of motor behaviour, mood and cognition. These receptors are mediating the effects of 5-HT throughout different brain areas via projections originating from midbrain raphe nuclei. A growing interest has been focusing on the function of 5-HT2C receptors in the basal ganglia because they may be involved in various diseases of basal ganglia function notably those associated with chronic impairment of dopaminergic transmission. 5-HT2C receptors act on numerous types of neurons in the basal ganglia, including dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic cells. Perhaps inherent to their peculiar molecular properties, the modality of controls exerted by 5-HT2C receptors over these cell populations can be phasic, tonic (dependent on the 5-HT tone) or constitutive (a spontaneous activity without the presence of the ligand). These controls are functionally organized in the basal ganglia: they are mainly localized in the input structures and preferentially distributed in the limbic/associative territories of the basal ganglia. The nature of these controls is modified in neuropsychiatric conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, tardive dyskinesia or addiction. Most of the available data indicate that the function of 5-HT2C receptor is enhanced in cases of chronic alterations of dopamine neurotransmission. The review illustrates that 5-HT2C receptors play a role in maintaining continuous controls over the basal ganglia via multiple diverse actions. We will discuss their interest for treatments aimed at ameliorating current pharmacotherapies in schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease or drugs abuse. HubMed – addiction



Stephanie Loebs, RN, BSN VP Seabrook House Addiction Rehab Center – Medical aspects of drug rehab addiction treatment.