Challenges in the Optimisation of Post-Operative Pain Management With Opioids in Obese Patients: A Literature Review.

Challenges in the Optimisation of Post-operative Pain Management with Opioids in Obese Patients: a Literature Review.

Obes Surg. 2013 May 23;
Lloret-Linares C, Lopes A, Declèves X, Serrie A, Mouly S, Bergmann JF, Perrot S

An increasing number of obese patients are undergoing surgery, particularly bariatric and orthopaedic surgery. The physiological differences between obese and normal-weight subjects may modify not only anaesthetic requirements during surgery but also post-operative analgesic management, raising a number of challenges in a critical period. In this review, we analyse studies of post-operative pain management with opioids in obese subjects. We discuss the genetic factors common to pain and obesity and the factors potentially modifying opioid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in obese patients, and we analyse the overall efficacy and safety of opioids for pain management during the post-operative period in obese patients. Both modifications to surgical methods and additional analgesic treatments to decrease the requirement for opioids may improve early rehabilitation and quality of care and reduce adverse effects in obese patients. HubMed – rehab


Does Surgical Approach in Total Hip Arthroplasty Affect Rehabilitation, Discharge Disposition, and Readmission Rate?

Surg Technol Int. 2013 May 22; XXIII:
Schweppe ML, Seyler TM, Plate JF, Swenson RD, Lang JE

There is a substantial preoccupation with different surgical approaches and minimally invasive techniques that may improve clinical outcomes for patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty. This study assessed the impact on hospital-related outcomes of the direct anterior approach (DAA) compared with the posterior approach (PA) performed by a single surgeon in 100 consecutive patients in each cohort. Patient age was similar in the DAA (61 ± 1.1 years) compared with the PA (62 ± 1.3, p = 0.733); however, BMI tended to be lower in DAA patients (29.1 ± 0.8) compared with PA patients (31.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.057). The DAA compared with the PA was associated with significantly less blood loss (285 ± 15 vs. 367 ± 21ml, p = 0.002) and transfusions (18 vs. 39 units, p = 0.009), less narcotic usage on postoperative days 1-3 (101 ± 12 vs. 146 ± 12 morphine equivalent dose, p = 0.010), a quicker hospital discharge (70 ± 3.3 vs. 97 ± 5.5 hours, p < 0.001), and a more favorable disposition (97% vs. 84% discharged home, p = 0.003). Thirty-day readmission rate was significantly higher with the PA (9%) compared with the DAA (1%, p = 0.030). The number of cups in the safe zone (5° to 25° anteversion and 30° to 50° inclination) was significantly higher with the DAA (92%) compared with the PA (75%, p = 0.002), possibly attributed to fluoroscopy used with the DAA. The DAA muscle-preservation technique may have led to the benefits observed in this study compared with the muscle-splitting technique associated with the PA. HubMed – rehab


Visual training paired with electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain improves orientation-selective visual acuity in the rat.

Brain Struct Funct. 2013 May 23;
Kang JI, Groleau M, Dotigny F, Giguère H, Vaucher E

The cholinergic afferents from the basal forebrain to the primary visual cortex play a key role in visual attention and cortical plasticity. These afferent fibers modulate acute and long-term responses of visual neurons to specific stimuli. The present study evaluates whether this cholinergic modulation of visual neurons results in cortical activity and visual perception changes. Awake adult rats were exposed repeatedly for 2 weeks to an orientation-specific grating with or without coupling this visual stimulation to an electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain. The visual acuity, as measured using a visual water maze before and after the exposure to the orientation-specific grating, was increased in the group of trained rats with simultaneous basal forebrain/visual stimulation. The increase in visual acuity was not observed when visual training or basal forebrain stimulation was performed separately or when cholinergic fibers were selectively lesioned prior to the visual stimulation. The visual evoked potentials show a long-lasting increase in cortical reactivity of the primary visual cortex after coupled visual/cholinergic stimulation, as well as c-Fos immunoreactivity of both pyramidal and GABAergic interneuron. These findings demonstrate that when coupled with visual training, the cholinergic system improves visual performance for the trained orientation probably through enhancement of attentional processes and cortical plasticity in V1 related to the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory inputs. This study opens the possibility of establishing efficient rehabilitation strategies for facilitating visual capacity. HubMed – rehab