Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Pre- Versus Postmenopausal Women With Spinal Cord Injury:: Preliminary Findings.

Cardiometabolic Risk Profiles in Pre- Versus Postmenopausal Women With Spinal Cord Injury:: Preliminary Findings.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012; 18(4): 322-330
Hosier H, Groah SL, Libin AV, Tinsley E, Burns P, Nash MS

To compare the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) profile of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with spinal cord injury (SCI).Post hoc analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study assessing CMR. Seventeen women with ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) A or B SCI between C5 and T12 were stratified into 2 groups according to menopausal status (11 premenopausal vs 6 postmenopausal women). Data collected included demographic, social, medical, menopausal, hormone use, and menstrual histories. Assessments included physical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measures; fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and hemoglobin A1C (Hb1Ac); calculated low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C); and an oral glucose tolerance test.The premenopausal group had a mean age of 32.4 years compared with 56.0 years in the postmenopausal group. Similar group findings included body mass index (BMI) (22.4 vs 22.2), HDL-C (52.5 vs 53 mg/dL), HbA1c (4.9 vs 5.1%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (79.3 vs 84.8 mg/dL), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (104.6 vs 111.8 mm Hg). TG, TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in postmenopausal group (55.7 vs 101.8 mg/dL, P = .01; 158.3 vs 191.6 mg/dL, P = .04; 94.7 vs 118.2 mg/dL, P = .04).The findings from this study suggest that postmenopausal women with SCI have CMR trends similar to those observed in nondisabled women, characterized by increases in TG, TC, and LDL-C despite favorable BMIs and glycemic indices. Even though the present study includes significant limitations, future evidence may also suggest that heightened surveillance and guideline-driven interventions are indicated for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with SCI. HubMed – rehab


Dysphagia and Associated Respiratory Considerations in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012; 18(4): 291-299
Chaw E, Shem K, Castillo K, Wong SL, Chang J

Dysphagia is a relatively common secondary complication that occurs after acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The detrimental consequences of dysphagia in SCI include transient hypoxemia, chemical pneumonitis, atelectasis, bronchospasm, and pneumonia. The expedient diagnosis of dysphagia is imperative to reduce the risk of the development of life-threatening complications.The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dysphagia after SCI and associated respiratory considerations in acute cervical SCI.Bedside swallow evaluation (BSE) was conducted in 68 individuals with acute cervical SCI who were admitted to an SCI specialty unit. Videofluroscopy swallow study was conducted within 72 hours of BSE when possible.This prospective study found dysphagia in 30.9% (21 out of 68) of individuals with acute cervical SCI. Tracheostomy (P = .028), ventilator use (P = .012), and nasogastric tube (P = .049) were found to be significant associated factors for dysphagia. Furthermore, individuals with dysphagia had statistically higher occurrences of pneumonia when compared with persons without dysphagia (P < .001). There was also a trend for individuals with dysphagia to have longer length of stay (P = .087).The role of respiratory care practitioners in the care of individuals with SCI who have dysphagia needs to be recognized. Aggressive respiratory care enables individuals with potential dysphagia to be evaluated by a speech pathologist in a timely manner. Early evaluation and intervention for dysphagia could decrease morbidity and improve overall clinical outcomes. HubMed – rehab


Functional electrical stimulation in spinal cord injury respiratory care.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012; 18(4): 315-21
Jarosz R, Littlepage MM, Creasey G, McKenna SL

The management of chronic respiratory insufficiency and/or long-term inability to breathe independently has traditionally been via positive-pressure ventilation through a mechanical ventilator. Although life-sustaining, it is associated with limitations of function, lack of independence, decreased quality of life, sleep disturbance, and increased risk for infections. In addition, its mechanical and electronic complexity requires full understanding of the possible malfunctions by patients and caregivers. Ventilator-associated pneumonia, tracheal injury, and equipment malfunction account for common complications of prolonged ventilation, and respiratory infections are the most common cause of death in spinal cord-injured patients. The development of functional electric stimulation (FES) as an alternative to mechanical ventilation has been motivated by a goal to improve the quality of life of affected individuals. In this article, we will review the physiology, types, characteristics, risks and benefits, surgical techniques, and complications of the 2 commercially available FES strategies – phrenic nerve pacing (PNP) and diaphragm motor point pacing (DMPP). HubMed – rehab


Specialized Respiratory Management for Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury:: A Retrospective Analysis.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2012; 18(4): 283-290
Wong SL, Shem K, Crew J

In individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory complications arise within hours to days of injury. Paralysis of the respiratory muscles predisposes the patient toward respiratory failure. Respiratory complications after cervical SCI include hypoventilation, hypercapnea, reduction in surfactant production, mucus plugging, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Ultimately, the patient must use increased work to breathe, which results in respiratory fatigue and may eventually require intubation for mechanical ventilation. Without specialized respiratory management for individuals with tetraplegia, recurrent pneumonias, bronchoscopies, and difficulty in maintaining a stable respiratory status will persist.This retrospective analysis examined the effectiveness of specialized respiratory management utilized in a regional SCI center.Individuals with C1-C4 SCI (N = 24) were the focus of this study as these neurological levels present with the most complicated respiratory status.All of the study patients’ respiratory status improved with the specialized respiratory management administered in the SCI specialty unit. For a majority of these patients, respiratory improvements were noted within 1 week of admission to our SCI unit.Utilization of high tidal volume ventilation, high frequency percussive ventilation, and mechanical insufflation- exsufflation have demonstrated efficacy in stabilizing the respiratory status of these individuals. Optimizing respiratory status enables the patients to participate in rehabilitation therapies, allows for the opportunity to vocalize, and results in fewer days on mechanical ventilation for patients who are weanable. HubMed – rehab