Cannabis, Ischemic Stroke, and Transient Ischemic Attack: A Case-Control Study.

Cannabis, Ischemic Stroke, and Transient Ischemic Attack: A Case-Control Study.

Stroke. 2013 May 21;
Barber PA, Pridmore HM, Krishnamurthy V, Roberts S, Spriggs DA, Carter KN, Anderson NE

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a temporal relationship between cannabis use and stroke in case series and population-based studies. METHODS: Consecutive stroke patients, aged 18 to 55 years, who had urine screens for cannabis were compared with a cohort of control patients admitted to hospital without cardiovascular or neurological diagnoses. RESULTS: One hundred sixty of 218 (73%) ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack patients had urine drug screens (100 men; mean [SD] age, 44.8 [8.7] years). Twenty-five (15.6%) patients had positive cannabis drug screens. These patients were more likely to be men (84% versus 59%; ?(2): P=0.016) and tobacco smokers (88% versus 28%; ?(2): P<0.001). Control urine samples were obtained from 160 patients matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Thirteen (8.1%) control participants tested positive for cannabis. In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, cannabis use was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-5.08). However after adjusting for tobacco use, an association independent of tobacco could not be confirmed (odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-3.70). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of an association between a cannabis lifestyle that includes tobacco and ischemic stroke. Further research is required to clarify whether there is an association between cannabis and stroke independent of tobacco.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: Unique identifier: ACTRN12610000198022. HubMed – drug


A Biodegradable Polymersome with pH-Tuning On-Off Membrane Based on Poly(?-amino ester) for Drug Delivery.

Macromol Biosci. 2013 May 21;
Jeong IK, Gao GH, Li Y, Kang SW, Lee DS

A nanoscale biodegradable polymersome with pH-tuning on-off membrane is prepared via the self-assembly of poly(?-amino ester)-based amphiphilic copolymers. The pH-sensitive polymersome-like vesicle structure includes two layers that can encapsulate either hydrophobic or hydrophilic therapeutic drugs at physiological pH 7.4. Below a pH of 7.0, the polymersome membrane forms tunnels through which the drug cargo can be rapidly released. The size and morphology of the polymersome are measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The pH sensitivity is confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The pH-sensitive drug-delivery polymersome provides a simple and powerful smart carrier for the delivery and controlled release of drugs. HubMed – drug


Detection of rarely identified multiple mutations in MECP2 gene do not contribute to enhanced severity in rett syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A. 2013 May 21;
Chapleau CA, Lane J, Kirwin SM, Schanen C, Vinette KM, Stubbolo D, Macleod P, Percy AK

The objective of our study was to characterize the influence of multiple mutations in the MECP2 gene in a cohort of individuals with Rett syndrome. Further analysis demonstrated that nearly all resulted from de novo in cis mutations, where the disease severity was indistinguishable from single mutations. Our methods involved enrolling participants in the RTT Natural History Study (NHS). After providing informed consent through their parents or principal caretakers, additional molecular assessments were performed in the participants and their parents to assess the presence and location of more than one mutation in each. Clinical severity was assessed at each visit in those participants in the NHS. Non-contiguous MECP2 gene variations were detected in 12 participants and contiguous mutations involving a deletion and insertion in three participants. Thirteen of 15 participants had mutations that were in cis; four (of 13) had three MECP2 mutations; two (of 15) had mutations that were both in cis and in trans (i.e., on different alleles). Clinical severity did not appear different from NHS participants with a single similar mutation. Mutations in cis were identified in most participants; two individuals had mutations both in cis and in trans. The presence of multiple mutations was not associated with greater severity. Nevertheless, multiple mutations will require greater thought in the future, if genetic assignment to drug treatment protocols is considered. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – drug


Antiapoptotic effects of cerium oxide and yttrium oxide nanoparticles in isolated rat pancreatic islets.

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013 May; 32(5): 544-53
Hosseini A, Baeeri M, Rahimifard M, Navaei-Nigjeh M, Mohammadirad A, Pourkhalili N, Hassani S, Kamali M, Abdollahi M

Type I diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by the impairment of pancreatic ?-cells mainly mediated through oxidative stress and related apoptosis. Islets transplantation seems a promising treatment for these patients, but during islets transplant, various types of stresses related to the isolation and transplantation procedure compromise the function and viability of islets. We recently hypothesized that the combination of cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles with a potential free radical scavenger behavior should be useful to make isolated islets survive until transplanted. In the present study, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in isolated rat pancreatic islets exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the protective effects of CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles were investigated. Exposure of islets to H2O2 (50 µm, 2 h) increased intracellular oxidant formation such as reactive oxygen species and subsequently apoptosis and decreased viability, glucose-induced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Pretreatment with CeO2 and/or Y2O3 nanoparticles reduced the oxidant formation and apoptosis and increased viability, glucose-induced ATP production and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These results suggest that this combination may protect ?-cell apoptosis by improving the oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. HubMed – drug



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