Brain Imaging in the Context of Food Perception and Eating.

Brain imaging in the context of food perception and eating.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012 Nov 15;
Hollmann M, Pleger B, Villringer A, Horstmann A

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eating behavior depends heavily on brain function. In recent years, brain imaging has proved to be a powerful tool to elucidate brain function and brain structure in the context of eating. In this review, we summarize recent findings in the fast growing body of literature in the field and provide an overview of technical aspects as well as the basic brain mechanisms identified with imaging. Furthermore, we highlight findings linking neural processing of eating-related stimuli with obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: The consumption of food is based on a complex interplay between homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms. Several hormones influence brain activity to regulate food intake and interact with the brain’s reward circuitry, which is partly mediated by dopamine signaling. Additionally, it was shown that food stimuli trigger cognitive control mechanisms that incorporate internal goals into food choice. The brain mechanisms observed in this context are strongly influenced by genetic factors, sex and personality traits. SUMMARY: Overall, a complex picture arises from brain-imaging findings, because a multitude of factors influence human food choice. Although several key mechanisms have been identified, there is no comprehensive model that is able to explain the behavioral observations to date. Especially a careful characterization of patients according to genotypes and phenotypes could help to better understand the current and future findings in neuroimaging studies.
HubMed – eating


Effects of fruit and vegetable, consumed in solid vs beverage forms, on acute and chronic appetitive responses in lean and obese adults.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Nov 20;
Houchins JA, Tan SY, Campbell WW, Mattes RD

Background:The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.Methods:This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion of fruits and vegetables, in solid and beverage form, into the habitual diet of healthy lean (n=15) and overweight/obese (n=19) adults with low customary consumption. The primary acute outcomes were satiation (amount of challenge meal consumed), satiety (latency of subsequent eating event) and dietary compensation after a 400?kcal fruit preload. Ratings of appetite were also obtained before and after 8 weeks of required increased fruit and vegetable consumption (20% estimated energy requirement).Results:Acutely, overweight/obese participants reported smaller reductions of hunger after consuming the fruit preload in beverage compared with solid form (preload × form × body mass index effects, P=0.03). Participants also consumed significantly less of a challenge meal (in both gram and energy) after the ingestion of the solid fruit preload (P<0.005). However, the subsequent meal latency was not significantly different between the solid and the beverage fruit preloads. Total daily energy intake was significantly higher when the obese participants consumed the beverage fruit preload compared with the solid (P<0.001). Daily energy intake was markedly, but not significantly, higher among the lean with the beverage vs solid food form. Hunger and fullness ratings remained stable when participants consumed fruits and vegetables in solid or beverage form for 8 weeks each.Conclusion:Acute post-ingestive appetitive responses were weaker following consumption of fruits in beverage vs solid food forms. Consumption of beverage or solid fruit and vegetable food loads for 8 weeks did not chronically alter appetitive responses.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.183. HubMed – eating


Access to commercial destinations within the neighbourhood and walking among Australian older adults.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012 Nov 20; 9(1): 133
Nathan A, Pereira G, Foster S, Hooper P, Saarloos D, Giles-Corti B

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physical activity, particularly walking, is greatly beneficial to health; yet a sizeable proportion of older adults are insufficiently active. The importance of built environment attributes for walking is known, but few studies of older adults have examined neighbourhood destinations and none have investigated access to specific, objectively-measured commercial destinations and walking. METHODS: We undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Western Australian state government’s health surveillance survey for those aged 65–84 years and living in the Perth metropolitan region from 2003–2009 (n = 2,918). Individual-level road network service areas were generated at 400 m and 800 m distances, and the presence or absence of six commercial destination types within the neighbourhood service areas identified (food retail, general retail, medical care services, financial services, general services, and social infrastructure). Adjusted logistic regression models examined access to and mix of commercial destination types within neighbourhoods for associations with self-reported walking behaviour. RESULTS: On average, the sample was aged 72.9 years (SD = 5.4), and was predominantly female (55.9%) and married (62.0%). Overall, 66.2% reported some weekly walking and 30.8% reported sufficient walking (>=150 min/week). Older adults with access to general services within 400 m (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.07-1.66) and 800 m (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.02-1.42), and social infrastructure within 800 m (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40) were more likely to engage in some weekly walking. Access to medical care services within 400 m (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.93) and 800 m (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70-0.99) reduced the odds of sufficient walking. Access to food retail, general retail, financial services, and the mix of commercial destination types within the neighbourhood were all unrelated to walking. CONCLUSIONS: The types of neighbourhood commercial destinations that encourage older adults to walk appear to differ slightly from those reported for adult samples. Destinations that facilitate more social interaction, for example eating at a restaurant or church involvement, or provide opportunities for some incidental social contact, for example visiting the pharmacy or hairdresser, were the strongest predictors for walking among seniors in this study. This underscores the importance of planning neighbourhoods with proximate access to social infrastructure, and highlights the need to create residential environments that support activity across the life course.
HubMed – eating


Remission, continuation and incidence of eating disorders during early pregnancy: a validation study in a population-based birth cohort.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Psychol Med. 2012 Nov 20; 1-12
Watson HJ, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, Knoph Berg C, Torgersen L, Magnus P, Stoltenberg C, Sullivan P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Bulik CM

BACKGROUND: We internally validated previously published rates of remission, continuation and incidence of broadly defined eating disorders during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Method A total of 77 267 pregnant women enrolled at 17 weeks gestation between 2001 and 2009 were split into a training sample (n = 41 243) from the version 2 dataset and a validation sample (n = 36 024) from the version 5 dataset who were not in the original study. Internal validation of original rate models involved fitting a calibration model to compare model parameters between the two samples and bootstrap estimates of bias in the entire version 5 dataset. RESULTS: Remission, continuation and incidence estimates remained stable. Pre-pregnancy prevalence estimates in the validation sample were: anorexia nervosa (AN; 0.1%), bulimia nervosa (BN; 1.0%), binge eating disorder (BED; 3.3%) and eating disorder not otherwise specified-purging disorder (EDNOS-P; 0.1%). In early pregnancy, estimates were: BN (0.2%), BED (4.8%) and EDNOS-P (<0.01%). Incident BN and EDNOS-P during pregnancy were rare. The highest rates were for full or partial remission for BN and EDNOS-P and continuation for BED. CONCLUSIONS: We validated previously estimated rates of remission, continuation and incidence of eating disorders during pregnancy. Eating disorders, especially BED, during pregnancy were relatively common, occurring in nearly one in every 20 women. Pregnancy was a window of remission from BN but a window of vulnerability for BED. Training to detect eating disorders by obstetricians/gynecologists and interventions to enhance pregnancy and neonatal outcomes warrant attention. HubMed – eating


More Eating Disorders Information…