Biological Activities of Phosphocitrate: A Potential Meniscal Protective Agent.

Biological activities of phosphocitrate: a potential meniscal protective agent.

Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 726581
Sun Y, Roberts A, Mauerhan DR, Sun AR, Norton HJ, Hanley EN

Phosphocitrate (PC) inhibited meniscal calcification and the development of calcium crystal-associated osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. However, the mechanisms remain elusive. This study sought to examine the biological activities of PC in the absence of calcium crystals and test the hypothesis that PC is potentially a meniscal protective agent. We found that PC downregulated the expression of many genes classified in cell proliferation, ossification, prostaglandin metabolic process, and wound healing, including bloom syndrome RecQ helicase-like, cell division cycle 7 homolog, cell division cycle 25 homolog C, ankylosis progressive homolog, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases-1/cyclooxygenase-1, and plasminogen activator urokinase receptor. In contrast, PC stimulated the expression of many genes classified in fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway, collagen fibril organization, and extracellular structure organization, including fibroblast growth factor 7, collagen type I, alpha 1, and collagen type XI, alpha 1. Consistent with its effect on the expression of genes classified in cell proliferation, collagen fibril organization, and ossification, PC inhibited the proliferation of OA meniscal cells and meniscal cell-mediated calcification while stimulating the production of collagens. These findings indicate that PC is potentially a meniscal-protective agent and a disease-modifying drug for arthritis associated with severe meniscal degeneration. HubMed – drug

Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium via Conventional Liposomes, Ethosomes, and Transfersomes.

Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 616810
Ghanbarzadeh S, Arami S

The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of Diclofenac sodium, a poorly water-soluble drug, employing conventional liposomes, ethosomes, and transfersomes. The prepared formulations had been characterized for the loaded drug amount and vesicle size. The prepared vesicular systems were incorporated into 1% Carbopol 914 gel, and a survey of in vitro drug release and drug retention into rat skin has been done on them using a modified Franz diffusion cell. The cumulative amount of drug permeated after 24?h, flux, and permeability coefficient were assessed. Stability studies were performed for three months. The size of vesicles ranged from 145 to 202?nm, and the encapsulation efficiency of the Diclofenac sodium was obtained between 42.61% and 51.72%. The transfersomes and ethosomes provided a significantly higher amount of cumulative permeation, steady state flux, permeability coefficient, and residual drug into skin compared to the conventional liposomes, conventional gel, or hydroethanolic solution. The in vitro release data of all vesicular systems were well fit into Higuchi model (RSD > 0.99). Stability tests indicated that the vesicular formulations were stable over three months. Results revealed that both ethosome and transfersome formulations can act as drug reservoir in skin and extend the pharmacologic effects of Diclofenac sodium. HubMed – drug

Transcriptomic profiling of the four adenosine receptors in human leukocytes of heart failure patients.

Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 569438
Cabiati M, Caruso R, Verde A, Sabatino L, Morales MA, Del Ry S

In this study the transcriptomic profiling of adenosine receptors (ARs) in human leukocytes of heart failure (HF) patients as a function of clinical severity, assessing the possible changes with respect to healthy subjects (C), was evaluated. Total RNA was extracted from leukocytes of C (n = 8) and of HF patients (NYHA I-II n = 9; NYHA III-IV n = 14) with a PAXgene Blood RNA Kit. An increase as a function of clinical severity was observed in each AR (A1R: C = 0.02 ± 0.009, NYHA I-II = 0.21 ± 0.09, NYHA III-IV = 3.6 ± 1.3, P = 0.03??C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.02 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2aR: C = 0.2 ± 0.05, NYHA I-II = 0.19 ± 0.04, NYHA III-IV = 1.32 ± 0.33, P = 0.005??C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.003 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2bR: C = 1.78 ± 0.36, NYHA I-II = 1.35 ± 0.29, NYHA III-IV = 4.07 ± 1.21, P = 0.03: NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A3R: C = 0.76 ± 0.21, NYHA I-II = 0.94 ± 0.19, NYHA III-IV = 3.14 ± 0.77, P = 0.01??C versus NYHA III-IV and NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV, resp.). The mRNA expression of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) and the ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) were also evaluated. They resulted up-regulated. These findings show that components of adenosine metabolism and signalling are altered to promote adenosine production and signalling in HF patients. Thus, HF may benefit from adenosine-based drug therapy after confirmation by clinical trials. HubMed – drug