Behavioral Studies and Genetic Alterations in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Neurocircuitry: Insights Into Human Psychiatric Disorders.

Behavioral Studies and Genetic Alterations in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Neurocircuitry: Insights into Human Psychiatric Disorders.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Behav Sci (Basel). 2012 Jun 21; 2(2): 135-171
Laryea G, Arnett MG, Muglia LJ

To maintain well-being, all organisms require the ability to re-establish homeostasis in the presence of adverse physiological or psychological experiences. The regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis during stress is important in preventing maladaptive responses that may increase susceptibility to affective disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central stress hormone in the HPA axis pathway and has been implicated in stress-induced psychiatric disorders, reproductive and cardiac function, as well as energy metabolism. In the context of psychiatric disorders, CRH dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, anorexia nervosa, and anxiety disorders. Here, we review the synthesis, molecular signaling and regulation, as well as synaptic activity of CRH. We go on to summarize studies of altered CRH signaling in mutant animal models. This assembled data demonstrate an important role for CRH in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral correlates of adaptation and maladaptation. Next, we present findings regarding human genetic polymorphisms in CRH pathway genes that are associated with stress and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss a role for regulators of CRH activity as potential sites for therapeutic intervention aimed at treating maladaptive behaviors associated with stress.
HubMed – depression


The long-term impact of physical and emotional trauma: the station nightclub fire.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47339
Schneider JC, Trinh NH, Selleck E, Fregni F, Salles SS, Ryan CM, Stein J

Survivors of physical and emotional trauma experience enduring occupational, psychological and quality of life impairments. Examining survivors from a large fire provides a unique opportunity to distinguish the impact of physical and emotional trauma on long-term outcomes. The objective is to detail the multi-dimensional long-term effects of a large fire on its survivor population and assess differences in outcomes between survivors with and without physical injury.This is a survey-based cross-sectional study of survivors of The Station fire on February 20, 2003. The relationships between functional outcomes and physical injury were evaluated with multivariate regression models adjusted for pre-injury characteristics and post-injury outcomes. Outcome measures include quality of life (Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief), employment (time off work), post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) and depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). 104 fire survivors completed the survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. Although depression and quality of life were associated with burn injury in univariate analyses (p<0.05), adjusted analyses showed no significant relationship between burn injury and these outcomes (p?=?0.91; p?=?.51). Post-traumatic stress symptoms were not associated with burn injury in the univariate (p?=?0.13) or adjusted analyses (p?=?0.79). Time off work was the only outcome in which physical injury remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p?=?0.03).Survivors of this large fire experienced significant life disruption, including occupational, psychological and quality of life sequelae. The findings suggest that quality of life, depression and post-traumatic stress outcomes are related to emotional trauma, not physical injury. However, physical injury is correlated with employment outcomes. The long-term impact of this traumatic event underscores the importance of longitudinal and mental health care for trauma survivors, with attention to those with and without physical injuries. HubMed – depression


Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent depression in South Korea: a multilevel analysis.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

PLoS One. 2012; 7(10): e47025
Park HY, Heo J, Subramanian SV, Kawachi I, Oh J

In recent years, South Korea has witnessed a sustained rise in the prevalence of adolescent depression. In the present study, we sought to investigate family and school environmental influences on adolescent depression.Middle and high school students (N?=?75,066) were randomly selected respondents to a web-based survey and answered questions on their academic and socioeconomic backgrounds, parental support, parental education level, physical activities, lifestyle habits and their experience of depression in the past one year. Two-level multilevel analysis was used to investigate the relationship between depression and individual (level 1) and school (level 2) factors. Girls reported having experienced depression in greater numbers than boys (43.96% vs. 32.03%). A significant association was found between adolescent depression experience and gender, grade, self-rated academic achievement, family affluence scale, parental support, parental education level, lifestyle habits, physical activity and sleep dissatisfaction. The students living with rich parents were more likely to be depressive, and maternal higher education was significantly associated with higher probability of boys’ depression experience. Low academic achievement was highly associated with the experience of depression. In school level contexts, girls were found to be less likely to be depressive in girls-only schools.The adolescent depression experience is not only an individual phenomenon but is highly associated with other factors such as parents, peers, academic achievement, and even gender mix in the school. Thus, prevention measures on youth depression need to focus on emphasizing less pressure from parents on academic performance, and establishing healthy inter-gender relationships within co-education schools.
HubMed – depression


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