Authors’ Response.

Authors’ response.

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr; 113(4): 509-10
Blissett J, Higgs S

HubMed – eating


Pain as a Risk Factor for Disability or Death.

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Mar 21;
Andrews JS, Cenzer IS, Yelin E, Covinsky KE

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pain predicts future activity of daily living (ADL) disability or death in individuals aged 60 and older. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The 1998 to 2008 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative study of older community-living individuals. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve thousand six hundred thirty-one participants in the 1998 HRS aged 60 and older who did not need help in any ADL. MEASUREMENTS: Participants reporting that they had moderate or severe pain most of the time were defined as having significant pain. The primary outcome was time to development of ADL disability or death over 10 yrs, assessed at five successive 2-year intervals. ADL disability was defined as needing help performing any ADL: bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, eating, or walking across a room. A discrete hazards survival model was used to examine the relationship between pain and incident disability over each 2-year interval using only participants who started the interval with no ADL disability. Several potential confounders were adjusted for at the start of each interval: demographic factors, seven chronic health conditions, and functional limitations (ADL difficulty and difficulty with five measures of mobility). RESULTS: At baseline, 2,283 (18%) participants had significant pain. Participants with pain were more likely (all P < .001) to be female (65% vs 54%), have ADL difficulty (e.g., transferring 12% vs 2%, toileting 11% vs 2%), have difficulty walking several blocks (60% vs 21%), and have difficulty climbing one flight of stairs (40% vs 12%). Over 10 years, participants with pain were more likely to develop ADL disability or death (58% vs 43%, unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57-1.79), although after adjustment for confounders, participants with pain were not at greater risk for ADL disability or death (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91-1.07). Adjustment for functional status almost entirely explained the difference between the unadjusted and adjusted results. CONCLUSION: Although there are strong cross-sectional relationships between pain and functional limitations, individuals with pain are not at higher risk of subsequent disability or death after accounting for functional limitations. Like many geriatric syndromes, pain and disability may represent interrelated phenomena that occur simultaneously and require unified treatment paradigms. HubMed – eating


Imaging findings in eating disorders.

AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013 Apr; 200(4): W328-35
Kraeft JJ, Uppot RN, Heffess AM

OBJECTIVE. Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are often undiagnosed but potentially treatable illnesses that, if not identified, can lead to morbidity and death. Often, because of embarrassment or social stigma, patients do not readily admit to these disorders when interviewed by caregivers. Imaging findings can suggest the presence of an eating disorder; understanding these findings allows the radiologist to contribute to the diagnosis of these insidious conditions and alert the referring caregiver. Current concepts in eating disorders and their multimodality imaging findings in several organ systems will be reviewed. CONCLUSION. After reviewing this article, the radiologist will understand the imaging findings in eating disorders. This knowledge will empower the radiologist to raise the question of a patient’s eating disorder, a condition that may be unsuspected by the referring caregiver and could otherwise remain undiagnosed. HubMed – eating


Physically effectiveness of beet pulp-based diets in dairy cows as assessed by responses of feed intake, digestibility, chewing activity and milk production.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013 Mar 23;
Teimouri Yansari A

Nine multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 56 ± 5 day) were randomly assigned to three experimental diets containing fine-dried (T1), normal-dried (T2) and pelleted (T3) beet pulp (BP) at 12% on a dry matter basis in a 3 × 3 change over design in three 21 day periods to evaluate the effects of three types of BP. Bulk density, functional specific gravity and water-holding capacity of ration and intake were similar, but intake of physically effective fibre was different among treatments. Without significant differences, nutrients’ digestibility in T1 trended to be higher than T2 and T3. Ruminal liquid pH and N-NH3 concentration were lower in T1 and higher in T3 than T2. Grinding and pelleting of BP increased and decreased volatile fatty acid concentration respectively. Grinding decreased acetate and propionate and increased butyrate and lactic acid. In contrary to pelleting, grinding of BP increased the particulate ruminal passage rate, but decreased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Pelleting of BP decreased ruminal passage rate, but increased ruminal mean retention time and lower compartment mean retention time. Grinding increased 5.64, 5.9 and 5.8% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with normal BP respectively. Pelleting increased 2.7%, 16.3% and 10.0% eating time, rumination and total chewing activity in comparison with T2 respectively. Milk yield had no significant difference, but milk yield adjusted to 4% fat, and milk fat (kg/day), fat, protein, casein and total solid of milk (%) were affected by the treatments. Results from this experiment show that based on milk fat assay, grinding did not reduce effectiveness of BP, but pelleting significantly increased effectiveness of BP. In addition, based on total chewing activity, grinding did not reduce physically effectiveness of BP, but pelleting of BP increased its physically effectiveness. HubMed – eating


[Development of a child’s eating and urge for suckling].

Duodecim. 2013; 129(5): 473-9
Haapanen ML, Markkanen-Leppänen M

A child’s oral-motor movement models develop from coarse and all-embracing generalized reflexive patterns towards separate, voluntary muscle functions. Development of the oral-motor sensory system begins already during fetal life. Suckling, dealing with and swallowing of food are rhythmic functions that are programmed from foci formed by neural networks of the brainstem. As breast feeding does not seem to completely satisfy children’s need for suckling, a pacifier has been offered to bring additional satisfaction. To ensure safe swallowing, the separate stages of eating should be neurologically coordinated with breathing. HubMed – eating



Men With Eating Disorders Have Tougher Time Getting Help – A new study shows 10-15 percent of people who suffer from anorexia or bulimia are men, but stigma prevents them from seeking treatment.