Association Between Moment of the Undergraduate Course and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in University Students.

Association between moment of the undergraduate course and cardiovascular risk factors in university students.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2013 Jun; 21(3): 687-94
Gasparotto Gda S, Gasparotto LP, Rossi LM, Moreira NB, Bontorin Mde S, Campos Wd

This study aimed to verify the association between moment of the undergraduate course and cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of university students Methods: A total of 1,599 university students (1,197 freshmen and 402 seniors) were investigated for the following risk factors: insufficient practice of physical activity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, poor eating habits, excess body weight, increased waist circumference and elevated arterial pressure. Information regarding the practice of physical activity were obtained using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) instrument, the behaviors using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, and the socio-environmental information using the methodology of the Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa (Brazilian Association of Research Companies).A significantly higher probability of presenting the following risk factors was verified among the senior students: insufficient practice of physical activity, smoked, consumed alcohol or drank alcohol in excess within the last thirty days.The results suggest that students closer to the end of the undergraduate course show a higher possibility of presenting some cardiovascular risk factors than those just entering the university environment. Therefore, prevention programs and health promotion during the undergraduate course should be investigated. HubMed – eating

Lack of association between DRD2 and OPRM1 genotypes and adiposity.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Aug 6;
Hardman CA, Rogers PJ, Timpson NJ, Munafò MR

BackgroundDopaminergic and opioid systems are both involved in food intake and appetite control. The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) therefore represent plausible candidates for association with obesity.ObjectivePrevious studies of these variants have yielded inconsistent findings, which are likely due to insufficient statistical power. The aim of the current study was to determine whether, in a large population-based sample, there are associations between adiposity and (i.) the A1 (T) allele of the Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497) in DRD2 and (ii.) the G allele of the A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) in OPRM1.Study populationAnnual clinic-based measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were taken from children (N=3720) at five measurement time points from ages 7 through to 11 years. BMI was also recorded in their mothers (N=2460) at comparable time points and at pre-pregnancy. All participants were genotyped. Our study was powered (at 80%) to detect per-allele effects on BMI of 0.21?kg/m(2).ResultsOur results indicate a lack of association between DRD2 and OPRM1 genotypes and adiposity. Combining the data across mothers and children found per-allele effects on BMI of 0.02?kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.17, 0.20), P=0.9, for rs1800497 and -0.08?kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.29, 0.22), P=0.4, for rs1799971. As a positive control, we also examined the effect of FTO genotype over the same time period and confirmed the expected relationship between variability at this locus and higher adiposity.ConclusionOur findings question existing evidence suggesting associations at DRD2 and OPRM1 loci and adiposity. They also highlight the caution required when employing candidate gene approaches to further our understanding of the neurobiology of eating and obesity.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 6 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.144. HubMed – eating

Seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community in a tropical oligotrophic environment (Ilha Solteira reservoir, Brazil).

Braz J Biol. 2013 May; 73(2): 321-30
Mansano A, Hisatugo K, Leite M, Luzia A, Regali-Seleghim M

The seasonal variation of the protozooplanktonic community (ciliates and testate amoebae) was studied in a tropical oligotrophic reservoir in Brazil, which was under the influence of two contrasting climatic seasons (rainy/warm and dry/cold). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these climatic changes on physical, chemical and biological variables in the dynamic of this community. The highest mean density of total protozoans occurred in the rainy/warm season (5683.2 ind L-1), while the lowest was in the dry/cold (2016.0 ind L-1). Considering the seasonal variations, the protozoan groups that are truly planktonic, such as the oligotrichs (Spirotrichea), predominated in the dry season, whereas during the rainy season, due to the material input and resuspension of sediment, sessile protozoans of the Peritrichia group were the most important ones. The dominant protozoans were Urotricha globosa, Cothurnia annulata, Pseudodifflugia sp. and Halteria grandinella. The highest densities of H. grandinella were associated with more oxygenated and transparent water conditions, while the highest densities of C. annulata occurred in sites with high turbidity, pH and trophic state index (TSI). The study demonstrated that density and composition of protozooplanktonic species and groups of the reservoir suffered seasonal variation due to the environmental variables (mainly temperature, turbidity, water transparency, dissolved oxygen and TSI) and the biological variables (e.g. morphological characteristics, eating habits and escape strategies from predation of the species). HubMed – eating