Assessing a Potential Role of Host Pannexin 1 During Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection.

Assessing a Potential Role of Host Pannexin 1 during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63732
McKuen MJ, Dahl G, Fields KA

Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a plasma membrane channel glycoprotein that plays a role in innate immune response through association with the inflammasome complex. Probenecid, a classic pharmacological agent for gout, has also been used historically in combination therapy with antibiotics to prevent cellular drug efflux and has been reported to inhibit Panx1. As the inflammasome has been implicated in the progression of Chlamydia infections, and with chlamydial infections at record levels in the US, we therefore investigated whether probenecid would have a direct effect on Chlamydia trachomatis development through inhibition of Panx1. We found chlamydial development to be inhibited in a dose-dependent, yet reversible manner in the presence of probenecid. Drug treatment induced an aberrant chlamydial morphology consistent with persistent bodies. Although Panx1 was shown to localize to the chlamydial inclusion, no difference was seen in chlamydial development during infection of cells derived from wild-type and Panx1 knockout mice. Therefore, probenecid may inhibit C. trachomatis growth by an as yet unresolved mechanism. HubMed – drug


Natural Borneol, a Monoterpenoid Compound, Potentiates Selenocystine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Enhancement of Cellular Uptake and Activation of ROS-Mediated DNA Damage.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63502
Su J, Lai H, Chen J, Li L, Wong YS, Chen T, Li X

Selenocystine (SeC) has been identified as a novel compound with broad-spectrum anticancer activities. Natural borneol (NB) is a monoterpenoid compound that has been used as a promoter of drug absorption. In the present study, we demonstrated that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeC and potentiated its antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells by induction of apoptosis. NB effectively synergized with SeC to reduce cancer cell growth through the triggering apoptotic cell death. Further mechanistic studies by Western blotting showed that treatment of the cells with NB and SeC activated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by regulation of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Treatment of the cells with NB and SeC induced the activation of p38MAPK and inactivation of Akt and ERK. NB also potentiated SeC to trigger intracellular ROS generation and DNA strand breaks as examined by Comet assay. Moreover, the thiol-reducing antioxidants effectively blocked the occurrence of cell apoptosis, which confirmed the important role of ROS in cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results reveal that NB strongly potentiates SeC-induced apoptosis in cancer cells by enhancement of cellular uptake and activation of ROS-mediated DNA damage. NB could be further developed as a chemosensitizer of SeC in treatment of human cancers. HubMed – drug


Substrate Specificity Provides Insights into the Sugar Donor Recognition Mechanism of O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT).

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63452
Ma X, Liu P, Yan H, Sun H, Liu X, Zhou F, Li L, Chen Y, Muthana MM, Chen X, Wang PG, Zhang L

O-Linked ?-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT) plays an important role in the glycosylation of proteins, which is involved in various cellular events. In human, three isoforms of OGT (short OGT [sOGT]; mitochondrial OGT [mOGT]; and nucleocytoplasmic OGT [ncOGT]) share the same catalytic domain, implying that they might adopt a similar catalytic mechanism, including sugar donor recognition. In this work, the sugar-nucleotide tolerance of sOGT was investigated. Among a series of uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) analogs tested using the casein kinase II (CKII) peptide as the sugar acceptor, four compounds could be used by sOGT, including UDP-6-deoxy-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcNPr, UDP-6-deoxy-GalNAc and UDP-4-deoxy-GlcNAc. Determined values of Km showed that the substitution of the N-acyl group, deoxy modification of C6/C4-OH or epimerization of C4-OH of the GlcNAc in UDP-GlcNAc decreased its affinity to sOGT. A molecular docking study combined with site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the backbone carbonyl oxygen of Leu653 and the hydroxyl group of Thr560 in sOGT contributed to the recognition of the sugar moiety via hydrogen bonds. The close vicinity between Met501 and the N-acyl group of GlcNPr, as well as the hydrophobic environment near Met501, were responsible for the selective binding of UDP-GlcNPr. These findings illustrate the interaction of OGT and sugar nucleotide donor, providing insights into the OGT catalytic mechanism. HubMed – drug


Hematopoietic Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Lyase Deficiency Decreases Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL-Receptor Deficient Mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63360
Bot M, Van Veldhoven PP, de Jager SC, Johnson J, Nijstad N, Van Santbrink PJ, Westra MM, Van Der Hoeven G, Gijbels MJ, Müller-Tidow C, Varga G, Tietge UJ, Kuiper J, Van Berkel TJ, Nofer JR, Bot I, Biessen EA

Altered sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) homeostasis and signaling is implicated in various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. As S1P levels are tightly controlled by S1P lyase, we investigated the impact of hematopoietic S1P lyase (Sgpl1(-/-)) deficiency on leukocyte subsets relevant to atherosclerosis.LDL receptor deficient mice that were transplanted with Sgpl1(-/-) bone marrow showed disrupted S1P gradients translating into lymphopenia and abrogated lymphocyte mitogenic and cytokine response as compared to controls. Remarkably however, Sgpl1(-/-) chimeras displayed mild monocytosis, due to impeded stromal retention and myelopoiesis, and plasma cytokine and macrophage expression patterns, that were largely compatible with classical macrophage activation. Collectively these two phenotypic features of Sgpl1 deficiency culminated in diminished atherogenic response.Here we not only firmly establish the critical role of hematopoietic S1P lyase in controlling S1P levels and T cell trafficking in blood and lymphoid tissue, but also identify leukocyte Sgpl1 as critical factor in monocyte macrophage differentiation and function. Its, partly counterbalancing, pro- and anti-inflammatory activity spectrum imply that intervention in S1P lyase function in inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis should be considered with caution. HubMed – drug