Aspen Plus(®) and Economic Modeling of Equine Waste Utilization For Localized Hot Water Heating via Fast Pyrolysis.

Aspen Plus(®) and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

J Environ Manage. 2013 Jul 8; 128C: 594-601
Hammer NL, Boateng AA, Mullen CA, Wheeler MC

Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site’s 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $ 11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $ 7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum. HubMed – rehab

Biological Markers in Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Trials in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

J ECT. 2013 Jul 10;
Fidalgo TM, Morales-Quezada JL, Muzy GS, Chiavetta NM, Mendonca ME, Santana MV, Goncalves OF, Brunoni AR, Fregni F

The therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with major depression have shown promising results; however, there is a lack of mechanistic studies using biological markers (BMs) as an outcome. Therefore, our aim was to review noninvasive brain stimulation trials in depression using BMs.The following databases were used for our systematic review: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and SCIELO. We examined articles published before November 2012 that used TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation as an intervention for depression and had BM as an outcome measure. The search was limited to human studies written in English.Of 1234 potential articles, 52 articles were included. Only studies using TMS were found. Biological markers included immune and endocrine serum markers, neuroimaging techniques, and electrophysiological outcomes. In 12 articles (21.4%), end point BM measurements were not significantly associated with clinical outcomes. All studies reached significant results in the main clinical rating scales. Biological marker outcomes were used as predictors of response, to understand mechanisms of TMS, and as a surrogate of safety.Functional magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cortical excitability, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor consistently showed positive results. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was the best predictor of patients’ likeliness to respond. These initial results are promising; however, all studies investigating BMs are small, used heterogeneous samples, and did not take into account confounders such as age, sex, or family history. Based on our findings, we recommend further studies to validate BMs in noninvasive brain stimulation trials in MDD. HubMed – rehab

Degree of conversion of bulk-fill compared to conventional resin-composites at two time intervals.

Dent Mater. 2013 Jul 8;
Alshali RZ, Silikas N, Satterthwaite JD

The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of conversion (DC) over time, using FTIR spectroscopy for bulk-fill flowable resin composite materials compared to conventional flowable and regular resin composite materials.Eight resin composites were investigated including flowable bulk-fill materials SureFil SDR (SDR), Venus bulk-fill (VBF), x-tra base (XB), and Filtek Bulk Fill (FBF). Conventional flowable and regular composite materials included: Venus Diamond flow (VDF), Grandioso flow (GRF), Venus Diamond (VD), and Grandioso (GR). Degree of conversion (DC) was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using attenuated total reflectance technique. DC was measured for samples immediately post-cure (n=3), and after 24h storage period at 37°C (n=3). Results were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni post hoc test, and independent-samples t-test at ?=0.05 significance level.Immediately post-cure, the mean DC values of the different materials were in the following order: GRF>VDF>SDR>VBF>XB>GR>FBFVBF>VD>SDR>VDF>GR>XBHubMed – rehab