Aripiprazole for Treating Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Symptoms in Ultrahigh-Risk Individuals.

Aripiprazole for Treating Cannabis-Induced Psychotic Symptoms in Ultrahigh-Risk Individuals.

Clin Neuropharmacol. 2013 May/June; 36(3): 98-99
Rolland B, Geoffroy PA, Jardri R, Cottencin O

Cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms (CIPSs) have both similarities and differences with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, and it remains unclear whether CIPSs result from dopaminergic mechanisms and can be treated with antipsychotics. We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with ultrahigh risk criteria for psychosis, who reported cannabis addiction and recurrent CIPSs. Aripiprazole 10 mg/d could totally and durably suppress CIPSs in the patient, but had no effect on the smoking level. Treating CIPSs in ultrahigh risk individuals who cannot stop or refuse stopping cannabis might fit a harm-reduction strategy by preventing transition into psychosis. HubMed – addiction


Inferior frontal cortex modulation with an acute dose of heroin during cognitive control.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 May 15;
Schmidt A, Walter M, Gerber H, Schmid O, Smieskova R, Bendfeldt K, Wiesbeck GA, Riecher-Rössler A, Lang UE, Rubia K, McGuire P, Borgwardt S

Impairments in inhibitory control and in stimulus-driven attention are hallmarks of drug addiction and are associated with decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Although previous studies indicate that the response inhibition function is impaired in abstinent heroin dependents, and that this is mediated by reduced IFG activity, it remains completely unknown whether and how an acute dose of heroin modulates IFG activity during cognitive control in heroin-dependent patients. This study investigates the acute effects of heroin administration on IFG activity during response inhibition and stimulus-driven attention in heroin-dependent patients. Using a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, saline and heroin were administered to 26 heroin-dependent patients from stable heroin-assisted treatment, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess right IFG activity during motor response inhibition, as well as during oddball-driven attention allocation. Relative to saline, heroin significantly reduced right IFG activity during both successful response inhibition and oddball-driven attention allocation, while it did not change right IFG activity during response inhibition after correction for the effect of attention allocation. These heroin-induced effects were not related to changes in drug craving, state-anxiety, behavioural performance or co-consumption of psychostimulant drugs. This study demonstrates that heroin administration acutely impairs stimulus-driven attention allocation, as indicated by reduced IFG activity in response to infrequently presented stimuli, and does not specifically modulate IFG activity during response inhibition.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 15 May 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.123. HubMed – addiction


Non-Cigarette Tobacco and the Lung.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013 May 15;
Schivo M, Avdalovic MV, Murin S

Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for “safer” alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use. HubMed – addiction