Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated With Obesity Among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

J Obes. 2013; 2013: 123901
Acheampong I, Haldeman L

The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals’ weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants’ weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. HubMed – eating


The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e67482
Zhu Y, Hsu WH, Hollis JH

Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P?=?0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P?=?0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. HubMed – eating


The drive to strive: goal generation based on current needs.

Front Neurosci. 2013; 7: 112
Murray EA, Rudebeck PH

Hungry animals are influenced by a multitude of different factors when foraging for sustenance. Much of the work on animal foraging has focused on factors relating to the amount of time and energy animals expend searching for and harvesting foods. Models that emphasize such factors have been invaluable in determining when it is beneficial for an animal to search for pastures new. When foraging, however, animals also have to determine how to direct their search. For what food should they forage? There is no point searching for more of a particular food when you are sated from eating it. Here we review work in macaques and humans that has sought to reveal the neural circuits critical for determining the subjective value of different foods and associated objects in our environment and tracking this value over time. There is mounting evidence that a network composed of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, and medial thalamus is critical for linking objects in the environment with food value and adjusting those valuations in real time based on current biological needs. Studies using temporary inactivation methods have revealed that the amygdala and OFC play distinct yet complementary roles in this valuation process. Such a network for determining the subjective value of different foods and, by extension, associated objects, must interact with systems that determine where and for how long to forage. Only by efficiently incorporating these two factors into their decisions will animals be able to achieve maximal fitness. HubMed – eating


Subretinal angiostrongyliasis-induced optic neuritis.

Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7: 977-9
Sinawat S, Yospaiboon Y, Sinawat S

A 27-year-old Thai male presented with progressive visual loss and a membrane-like floater in the right eye that had persisted for 1 month. He had a history of eating raw foods, including snails. His initial visual acuity was counting fingers at 1 ft and he had a relative afferent pupillary defect. A movable larva with subretinal tracks was found in the subretinal space near a normal optic disc. Visually evoked potentials showed delayed latency, which indicated secondary retrobulbar optic neuritis. A diode laser was directly applied to the motile worm. The patient was subsequently prescribed oral prednisolone and albendazole. After treatment, his visual acuity was slightly improved at 2/60. Ocular manifestation is a very rare event resulting from parasitic infection. In only 1.1% of angiostrongyliasis cases is an Angiostrongylus cantonensis larva identified in the eye. Ocular angiostrongyliasis with optic neuritis may be secondary to mechanical injury and/or inflammatory reactions. Steroid treatment is recommended, although most patients have only slight visual improvement after treatment. HubMed – eating



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