Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Subtypes of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From Pig Tonsils and Cow’s Milk in China.

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular subtypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pig tonsils and cow’s milk in China.

Can J Vet Res. 2012 Oct; 76(4): 268-74
Zhang C, Song L, Chen H, Liu Y, Qin Y, Ning Y

This study investigated and compared the antimicrobial resistance patterns and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pig tonsils and cow’s milk in China. A total of 90 isolates of S. aureus was included: 42 strains were isolated from tonsils of pigs and 48 from half-udder milk. The broth microdilution method and the double-disc diffusion test (D test) were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The mecA gene for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA genes for erythromycin-resistant strains were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolates were ribotyped with the Riboprinter system. The highest frequency of resistance was observed with clindamycin (91.1%), followed by penicillin (90.0%), and erythromycin (85.6%). All strains were susceptible to vancomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The D test showed that 54.5% (42/77) of erythromycin-resistant isolates had the constitutive resistance phenotype and 45.5% (35/77) had the inducible resistance phenotype to clindamycin. A higher proportion of resistance to cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and pleuromutilins was observed in pig isolates than in milk isolates (P < 0.05). The mecA gene was detected in all MRSA isolates; 89.6% of erythromycin-resistant strains harbored the ermC gene and 16.9% harbored the ermB gene. A total of 35 different ribogroups was found among the isolates investigated; 83.3% of pig strains belonged to 1 cluster with a similarity coefficient of 0.84. In contrast, 3 main clusters were observed among 68.8% of milk strains, which indicates a high degree of host specificity. HubMed – drug

 

Retrospective analysis of Steven Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis over a period of 5 years from northern Karnataka, India.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2013 Jan; 45(1): 80-2
Naveen KN, Pai VV, Rai V, Athanikar SB

Cutaneous drug reactions are the most common type of adverse drug reactions. Adverse cutaneous drug reactions form 2-3% of the hospitalized patients. 2% of these are potentially serious. This study aims to detect the drugs commonly implicated in Steven Johnson Syndrome-Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (SJS-TEN).A retrospective analysis was done in all patients admitted in the last five years in SDM hospital with the diagnosis of SJS-TEN.A total of 22 patients with SJS-TEN were studied. In 11 patients anti-epileptics was the causal drug and in 7, anti-microbials was the causal drug. Recovery was much faster in case of anti epileptics induced SJS-TEN as compared to that induced by ofloxacin.SJS-TEN induced by ofloxacin has a higher morbidity and mortality compared to anti convulsants. HubMed – drug

 

Multifunctional hybrid silica nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin loading and release with thermal and pH dually response.

J Mater Chem B Mater Biol Med. 2013; 1(8): 1109-1118
Hu X, Hao X, Wu Y, Zhang J, Zhang X, Wang PC, Zou G, Liang XJ

Controlled drug loading and release into tumor cells to increase the intracellular drug concentration is a major challenge for cancer therapy due to resistance and inefficient cellular uptake. Here a temperature and pH dually responsive PNiPAM/[email protected] core-shell particles with internal controlled release were designed and fabricated for efficient cancer treatment, which could recognize the intrinsic pH differences between cancers and normal tissues. Upon lowering the temperature, doxorubicin was loaded into the PNiPAM/[email protected] nanoparticles, whereas by increasing the acidity, previously loaded doxorubicin was quickly released. Comparing with common mesoporous silica particles (MSNs), this core-shell particle has more uniform size and better dispersity. In addition, dried PNiPAM/[email protected] nanoparticles could be easily redispersed in distilled water. The in vitro cell culture experiments showed that not only PNiPAM/[email protected] particles were more biocompatible and lower cytotoxic than MSN, but also [email protected]/[email protected] had higher drug releasing efficiency in the lysosomes and stronger inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth than [email protected] All these features indicated that PNiPAM/[email protected] particles have great potential in therapy applications. HubMed – drug

 

Why personalized medicine will fail if we stay the course.

Per Med. 2012 Nov; 9(8): 839-847
Ramos E, Callier SL, Rotimi CN

Genomic science and associated technologies are providing scientists and clinicians with novel insights that are transforming the delivery of healthcare and the overall well-being of society. However, these insights inform us that historical population sampling approaches for investigating rare and common genetic variations are not representative of the complex ancestral backgrounds of today’s patients. In order for personalized medicine to be meaningful and applicable to the global populations, we will need to know how common and rare genetic variants found in different parts of the world influence health and drug response. This article demonstrates the importance of increasing ethnic and racial diversity among participants in genomic research, highlights areas of opportunity for improving our understanding of genomic diversity among populations, and provides examples of successful models that help to resolve these concerns. HubMed – drug