[Antidepressant Activities of Flavonoids From Glycyrrhiza Uralensis and Its Neurogenesis Protective Effect in Rats].

[Antidepressant activities of flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and its neurogenesis protective effect in rats].

Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2012 Dec; 47(12): 1612-7
Fan ZZ, Zhao WH, Guo J, Cheng RF, Zhao JY, Yang WD, Wang YH, Li W, Peng XD

Adult rats chronic unpredictable stress model of depression (CUS) was adopted to elucidate the antidepressant pharmacological activity and related neurogenesis protective effect of the total flavonoids extract (licorice flavonoids, LF) from the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. cultivated locally in Ningxia. The rats were exposed to 9 kinds of unpredictable sequence of stressors and were given flavonoids (300 mg x kg(-1), 100 mg x kg(-1) and 30 mg x kg(-1)) for 28 days. The antidepressant effect was elucidated by open field test, forced swimming test and tail suspension test. The level of serum corticosterone was detected by radioimmunoassay. 5′-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling experiments was employed to study the neurogenesis protective activities. The flavonoids can increase the sum of line crosses and number of rears, and decrease the number of fecal boli produced in the open field test of the CUS rats. Also the flavonoids can decrease the immobility time in forced swim test as well as in the tail suspension test. In addition, the flavonoids (300 mg x kg(-1)) can decrease the serum corticosterone level of the CUS rats, and increase the number of the new born BrdU positive progenitor cells at the subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus (DG) region in hippocampus. The results demonstrated that the total flavonoids extract from the cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. could produce the anti-depressive effect on chronic unpredictable stress of depression model rats and its mechanism may be associated with its neurogenesis protective effect. HubMed – depression


Acute BDNF Treatment Upregulates GluR1-SAP97 and GluR2-GRIP1 Interactions: Implications for Sustained AMPA Receptor Expression.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57124
Jourdi H, Kabbaj M

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays several prominent roles in synaptic plasticity and in learning and memory formation. Reduced BDNF levels and altered BDNF signaling have been reported in several brain diseases and behavioral disorders, which also exhibit reduced levels of AMPAr subunits. BDNF treatment acutely regulates AMPA receptor expression and function, including synaptic AMPAr subunit trafficking, and implicates several well defined signaling molecules that are required to elicit long term potentiation and depression (LTP and LTD, respectively). Long term encoding of synaptic events, as in long term memory formation, requires AMPAr stabilization and maintenance. However, factors regulating AMPAr stabilization in neuronal cell membranes and synaptic sites are not well characterized. In this study, we examine the effects of acute BDNF treatment on levels of AMPAr-associated scaffolding proteins and on AMPAr subunit-scaffolding protein interactions. We also examine the effects of BDNF-dependent enhanced interactions between AMPAr subunits with their specific scaffolding proteins on the accumulation of both types of proteins. Our results show that acute BDNF treatment upregulates the interactions between AMPAr subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) with their scaffold proteins SAP97 and GRIP1, respectively, leading to prolonged increased accumulation of both categories of proteins, albeit with distinct mechanisms for GluR1 and GluR2. Our findings reveal a new role for BDNF in the long term maintenance of AMPA receptor subunits and associated scaffolding proteins at synapses and further support the role of BDNF as a key regulator of synaptic consolidation. These results have potential implications for recent findings implicating BDNF and AMPAr subunits in various brain diseases and behavioral disorders. HubMed – depression


A comparison of inbreeding depression in tropical and widespread Drosophila species.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e51176
Bechsgaard JS, Hoffmann AA, Sgró C, Loeschcke V, Bilde T, Kristensen TN

The evolutionary history of widespread and specialized species is likely to cause a different genetic architecture of key ecological traits in the two species groups. This may affect how these two groups respond to inbreeding. Here we investigate inbreeding effects in traits related to performance in 5 widespread and 5 tropical restricted species of with the aim of testing whether the two species groups suffered differently from inbreeding depression. The traits investigated were egg-to-adult viability, developmental time and resistance to heat, cold and desiccation. Our results showed that levels of inbreeding depression were species and trait specific and did not differ between the species groups for stress resistance traits. However, for the life history traits developmental time and egg-to adult viability, more inbreeding depression was observed in the tropical species. The results reported suggest that for life history traits tropical species of will suffer more from inbreeding depression than widespread species in case of increases in the rate of inbreeding e.g. due to declines in population sizes. HubMed – depression


The Context of Gene Expression Defines the Immunodominance Hierarchy of Cytomegalovirus Antigens.

J Immunol. 2013 Mar 4;
Dekhtiarenko I, Jarvis MA, Ruzsics Z, Cicin-Sain L

Natural immunity to CMV dominates the CD4 and CD8 memory compartments of the CMV-seropositive host. This property has been recently exploited for experimental CMV-based vaccine vector strategies, and it has shown promise in animal models of AIDS and Ebola disease. Although it is generally agreed that CMV-based vaccine vectors may induce highly protective and persistent memory T cells, the influence of the gene expression context on Ag-specific T cell memory responses and immune protection induced by CMV vectors is not known. Using murine CMV (MCMV) recombinants expressing a single CD8 T cell epitope from HSV-1 fused to different MCMV genes, we show that magnitude and kinetics of T cell responses induced by CMV are dependent on the gene expression of CMV Ags. Interestingly, the kinetics of the immune response to the HSV-1 epitope was paralleled by a reciprocal depression of immune responses to endogenous MCMV Ags. Infection with a recombinant MCMV inducing a vigorous initial immune response to the recombinant peptide resulted in a depressed early response to endogenous MCMV Ag. Another recombinant virus, which induced a slowly developing “inflationary” T cell response to the HSV-1 peptide, induced weaker long-term responses to endogenous CMV Ags. Importantly, both mutants were able to protect mice from a challenge with HSV-1, mediating strong sterilizing immunity. Our data suggest that the context of gene expression markedly influences the T cell immunodominance hierarchy of CMV Ags, but the immune protection against HSV-1 does not require inflationary CD8 responses against the recombinant CMV-expressed epitope. HubMed – depression



Patient Mistakes During Treatment for Depression – Despite the doctor’s best efforts, some depression patients wreck their own depression treatment. HealthyPlace.com Medical Director, Dr. Harry Croft, runs through what some depression patients do wrong. For comprehensive information on depression, visit the HealthyPlace.com Depression Information Center: www.healthyplace.com