[Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Clinical Practice].

[Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice].

Ter Arkh. 2013; 85(2): 85-8

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics. HubMed – drug


Second-line protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy after non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor failure: the effect of a nucleoside backbone.

Antivir Ther. 2013; 18(2): 213-9
Waters L, Bansi L, Asboe D, Pozniak A, Smit E, Orkin C, Fearnhill E, Dunn D, Phillips A, ,

Virological failures on combined antiretroviral therapy still occur. Boosted protease inhibitor ( Pl/r)- based therapy is a commonly used option after non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor ( NNRTI) failure, but whether two fully active nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are required is unknown. We investigated the effect of an NRTI backbone in individuals receiving Pl/r after failing NNRTI-based combined antiretroviral therapy.A longitudinal analysis of the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database to identify individuals who failed first-line NNRTI and two NRTIs, and switched to Pl/r-based therapy between January 1999 and December 2008 was conducted. We investigated the effect of NRTI on suppression.In total, 470 individuals met study criteria: 19.6%, 34.5% and 46.0% started 0, 1 or ? 2 NRTIs, respectively. Median CD4+ T-cell count was 223 cells/mm3 and HIV-RNA was 4.3 log10 copies/ml; 246 (52.3%) underwent genotyping before switch. virological failure occurred in 10.9% and 13% after 48 and 96 weeks, respectively. In multivariable analysis, heterosexual risk group and HIV RNA were independently associated with virological failure; higher CD4+ T-cell count was protective (HR= 0.92). Number of new NRTIs or genotypic sensitivity score of backbone had no effect on treatment success rates when modelled as categorical or continuous variables.Successful treatment with a second-line Pl/r may not require two active NRTIs. If replicated in clinincal trials, these findings could guide future recommendations. HubMed – drug


The rabbit as a model for studying lung disease and stem cell therapy.

Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 691830
Kamaruzaman NA, Kardia E, Kamaldin N’, Latahir AZ, Yahaya BH

No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, especially in the case of asthma, are comparable with those that occur in humans. The allergic rabbit model has been used extensively in drug screening tests, and this model and humans appear to be sensitive to similar drugs. In addition, recent studies have shown that the rabbit serves as a good platform for cell delivery for the purpose of stem-cell-based therapy. HubMed – drug


Anesthetic drug development: Novel drugs and new approaches.

Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 1): S2-S10
Chitilian HV, Eckenhoff RG, Raines DE

The ideal sedative-hypnotic drug would be a rapidly titratable intravenous agent with a high therapeutic index and minimal side effects. The current efforts to develop such agents are primarily focused on modifying the structures of existing drugs to improve their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Drugs currently under development using this rational design approach include analogues of midazolam, propofol, and etomidate, such as remimazolam, PF0713, and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl-etomidate (MOC-etomidate), respectively. An alternative approach involves the rapid screening of large libraries of molecules for activity in structural or phenotypic assays that approximate anesthetic and target receptor interactions. Such high-throughput screening offers the potential for identifying completely novel classes of drugs. Anesthetic drug development is experiencing a resurgence of interest because there are new demands on our clinical practice that can be met, at least in part, with better agents. The goal of this review is to provide the reader with a glimpse of the novel anesthetic drugs and new developmental approaches that lie on the horizon. HubMed – drug


Diagnosing sporadic creutzfeldt-jakob disease in a patient with a suspected status epilepticus in the intensive care unit.

Case Rep Neurol Med. 2013; 2013: 630141
van der Horn HJ, Egbers PH, Kuiper MA, Schuiling WJ

Objective. Several tests are available in the diagnostics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD); however, none of these is conclusive. We review the values of these tests, from an intensive care unit (ICU) perspective. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Results. A 53-year-old woman initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms developed myoclonus and was admitted 1 month later to the ICU with a suspected nonconvulsive status epilepticus and respiratory insufficiency, probably due to extensive antiepileptic drug therapy. Typical MRI and EEG findings and a positive 14-3-3 protein led to the diagnosis of sCJD. All treatments were terminated, and autopsy confirmed sCJD. Conclusions. Clinical signs combined with MRI, EEG, and 14-3-3 and/or tau protein determination might be sufficient to diagnose or exclude sCJD and may therefore prevent the application of unnecessary diagnostic tests. HubMed – drug