Angels and Demons Are Among Us: Assessing Individual Differences in Belief in Pure Evil and Belief in Pure Good.

Angels and Demons Are Among Us: Assessing Individual Differences in Belief in Pure Evil and Belief in Pure Good.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2013 Jul 24;
Webster RJ, Saucier DA

We conducted five studies to demonstrate that individuals’ beliefs in pure evil (BPE) and in pure good (BPG) are valid and important psychological constructs. First, these studies together demonstrated that BPE and BPG are reliable, unitary, and stable constructs each composed of eight theoretically interdependent dimensions. Second, these studies showed that across a wide variety of different measures, higher BPE consistently related to greater intergroup aggression (e.g., supporting the death penalty and preemptive military aggression) and less intergroup prosociality (e.g., opposing criminal rehabilitation, proracial policies, and beneficial social programs), while higher BPG consistently related to less intergroup aggression (e.g., opposing proviolent foreign relations and torture) and greater intergroup prosociality (e.g., supporting criminal rehabilitation and support for diplomacy). In sum, these studies evidence that BPE and BPG relate to aggressive and prosocial orientations toward others and have strong potential to advance current theories on prejudice, aggression, and prosociality. HubMed – rehab

“I’m Not Just a Heart, I’m a Whole Person Here”: A Qualitative Study to Improve Sexual Outcomes in Women With Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2013; 2(4): e000199
Abramsohn EM, Decker C, Garavalia B, Garavalia L, Gosch K, Krumholz HM, Spertus JA, Lindau ST

Little is known about recovery of female sexual function following an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Interventions to improve sexual outcomes in women are limited.Semistructured, qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 17 partnered women (aged 43 to 75 years) purposively selected from the Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients’ Health Status Registry to deepen knowledge of recovery of female sexual function following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to improve sexual outcomes in women. Sixteen women had a monogamous relationship with a male spouse; 1 had a long-term female partner. Most women resumed sexual activity within 4 weeks of their MI. Sexual problems and concerns were prevalent, including patient and/or partner fear of “causing another heart attack.” Few women received counseling about sexual concerns or the safety of returning to sex. Most women who discussed sex with a physician initiated the discussion themselves. Inquiry about strategies to improve sexual outcomes elicited key themes: need for privacy, patient-centeredness, and information about the timing and safe resumption of sexual activity. In addition, respondents felt that counseling should be initiated by the treating cardiologist, who “knows whether your heart is safe,” and then reinforced by the care team throughout the rehabilitation period.Partnered women commonly resume sexual activity soon after an MI with fear but without directed counseling from their physicians. Proactive attention to women’s concerns related to sexual function and the safety of sexual activity following an MI could improve post-MI outcomes for women and their partners. HubMed – rehab

The palliative care needs for fibrotic interstitial lung disease: A qualitative study of patients, informal caregivers and health professionals.

Palliat Med. 2013 Jul 24;
Bajwah S, Higginson IJ, Ross JR, Wells AU, Birring SS, Riley J, Koffman J

Background:While there have been some studies looking at the impact on quality of life of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, to date no qualitative research looking at the specialist palliative needs of these patients has been conducted.Aim:This study aims to explore the specialist palliative care needs of people living with end-stage progressive idiopathic fibrotic interstitial lung disease.Design and settings/participants:In total, 18 qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with patients, their informal caregivers and health professionals across two specialist interstitial lung disease centres in London and in the community.Results:Many participants reported uncontrolled symptoms of shortness of breath, cough and insomnia, which profoundly impacted every part of patients’ and informal caregivers’ lives. Psychologically, patients were frustrated and angry at the way in which their illness severely limited their ability to engage in activities of daily living and compromised their independence. Furthermore, both patients and informal caregivers also reported that the disease seriously affected family relationships where strain was pronounced. There was varied knowledge and confidence among health professionals in managing symptoms, and psychosocial needs were often underestimated.Conclusion:This study is the first of its kind to examine in depth the impact of symptoms and psychosocial needs revealing the profound effect on every aspect of progressive idiopathic fibrotic interstitial lung disease patients’ and informal caregivers’ lives. Education and guidance of appropriate palliative care interventions to improve symptom control are needed. A case conference intervention with individualised care plans may help in addressing the substantial symptom control and psychosocial needs of these patients and informal caregivers. HubMed – rehab

Availability of essential drugs for managing HIV-related pain and symptoms within 120 PEPFAR-funded health facilities in East Africa: A cross-sectional survey with onsite verification.

Palliat Med. 2013 Jul 24;
Harding R, Simms V, Penfold S, Downing J, Powell RA, Mwangi-Powell F, Namisango E, Moreland S, Gikaara N, Atieno M, Kataike J, Nsubuga C, Munene G, Banga G, Higginson IJ

Background:World Health Organization’s essential drugs list can control the highly prevalent HIV-related pain and symptoms. Availability of essential medicines directly influences clinicians’ ability to effectively manage distressing manifestations of HIV.Aim:To determine the availability of pain and symptom controlling drugs in East Africa within President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded HIV health care facilities.Design:Directly observed quantitative health facilities’ pharmacy stock review. We measured availability, expiration and stock-outs of specified drugs required for routine HIV management, including the World Health Organization pain ladder.Setting:A stratified random sample in 120 President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-funded HIV care facilities (referral and district hospitals, health posts/centres and home-based care providers) in Kenya and Uganda.Results:Non-opioid analgesics (73%) and co-trimoxazole (64%) were the most commonly available drugs and morphine (7%) the least. Drug availability was higher in hospitals and lower in health centres, health posts and home-based care facilities. Facilities generally did not use minimum stock levels, and stock-outs were frequently reported. The most common drugs had each been out of stock in the past 6 months in 47% of facilities stocking them. When a minimum stock level was defined, probability of a stock-out in the previous 6 months was 32.6%, compared to 45.5% when there was no defined minimum stock level (?(2) = 5.07, p = 0.024).Conclusion:The data demonstrate poor essential drug availability, particularly analgesia, limited by facility type. The lack of strong opioids, isoniazid and paediatric formulations is concerning. Inadequate drug availability prevents implementation of simple clinical pain and symptom control protocols, causing unnecessary distress. Research is needed to identify supply chain mechanisms that lead to these problems. HubMed – rehab

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