American Juvenile Justice System: History in the Making.

American juvenile justice system: history in the making.

Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2013 Jul 11; 1-4
Meng A, Segal R, Boden E

Abstract The original theory behind separating juvenile offenders from adult offenders was to provide care and direction for youngsters instead of isolation and punishment. This idea took hold in the 19th century and became mainstream by the early 20th century. In the 1950s and 1960s, public concern grew because of a perceived lack of effectiveness and lack of rights. The Supreme Court made a series of rulings solidifying juvenile rights including the right to receive notice of charges, the right to have an attorney and the right to have charges proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the 1980s, the public view was that the juvenile court system was too lenient and that juvenile crimes were on the rise. In the 1990s, many states passed punitive laws, including mandatory sentencing and blanket transfers to adult courts for certain crimes. As a result, the pendulum is now swinging back toward the middle from rehabilitation toward punishment. HubMed – rehab


Emergence of Deletions during Treadmill Locomotion as a Function of Supraspinal and Sensory Inputs.

J Neurosci. 2013 Jul 10; 33(28): 11599-11605
Martinez M, Tuznik M, Delivet-Mongrain H, Rossignol S

During locomotion, alternating activity of flexor and extensor muscles is largely regulated by a spinal neuronal network, the central pattern generator, the activity of which is modulated by peripheral and supraspinal inputs. In the absence of these modulatory inputs, for example during fictive locomotion after spinalization and curarization, spontaneous failures of motor activation (deletions) in a muscle can occur without perturbing the rhythmic cycle structure of the antagonists on the same side or the contralateral side. This suggests that the central pattern generator can maintain the locomotor period when motoneuron discharges fail in a given pool of motoneurons. Here we first examined whether such deletions could occur during real locomotion on a treadmill and determined their consequences on the overt locomotor pattern. We also evaluated the role of supraspinal and sensory inputs in modulating the occurrence of failures of rhythmic activity by comparing the same cats in the intact state, then after a partial spinal cord injury (SCI), and finally after a complete SCI at different treadmill speeds. We showed that deletions: (1) are absent in intact animals and occur only after SCI; (2) affect only flexor muscle activity; (3) neither perturb the timing of rhythmic activity of these muscles in subsequent cycles nor interfere with the timing of the ipsilateral and contralateral agonists and antagonists; (4) do not affect significantly the locomotor pattern kinematics; and (5) are sensitive to treadmill speed and lesion severity, suggesting a role for sensory and supraspinal inputs in stabilizing rhythmic output activity. HubMed – rehab


A pedoprosthetic rehabilitation in patients with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC).

BMJ Case Rep. 2013; 2013(jul08_2):
Mishra A, Pandey R, Pandey N, Jain E

Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapid form of dental caries. ECC is the most common chronic childhood disease that can compromise a child’s self-esteem, nutritional intake, oral development and quality of life, subsequently leading to malocclusion and psychological problems. The restoration of severely decayed primary teeth is often a difficult procedure that offers a great challenge to paediatric dentists. The present case series document the clinical management of patients suffering from severe early childhood caries using removable partial prosthesis restoring their masticatory function and aesthestics. The ultimate aim of the treatment was to improve psychological and physiological development leading to better functioning of the stomatognathic system. HubMed – rehab


Pulmonary rehabilitation; what’s in a name?

Thorax. 2013 Jul 10;
Singh SJ, Steiner MC

HubMed – rehab