Almanac 2011: Acute Coronary Syndromes. the National Society Journals Present Selected Research That Has Driven Recent Advances in Clinical Cardiology.

Almanac 2011: Acute Coronary Syndromes. The National Society Journals Present Selected Research that has Driven Recent Advances in Clinical Cardiology.

Mater Sociomed. 2011; 23(3): 161-70
Knight C, Timmis AD

This overview highlights some recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment of acute coronary syndromes. The sheer volume of new studies reflects the robust state of global cardiovascular research but the focus here is on findings that are of most interest to the practising cardiologist. Incidence and mortality rates for myocardial infarction are in decline, probably owing to a combination of lifestyle changes, particularly smoking cessation, and improved pharmacological and interventional treatment. Troponins remain central for diagnosis and new high-sensitivity assays are further lowering detection thresholds and improving outcomes. The incremental diagnostic value of other circulating biomarkers remains unclear and for risk stratification simple clinical algorithms such as the GRACE score have proved more useful. Primary PCI with minimal treatment delay is the most effective reperfusion strategy in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Radial access is associated with less bleeding than with the femoral approach, but outcomes appear similar. Manual thrombectomy limits distal embolisation and infarct size while drug-eluting stents reduce the need for further revascularisation procedures. Non-culprit disease is best dealt with electively as a staged procedure after primary PCI has been completed. The development of antithrombotic and antiplatelet regimens for primary PCI continues to evolve, with new indications for fondaparinux and bivalirudin as well as small-molecule glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa inhibitors. If timely primary PCI is unavailable, fibrinolytic treatment remains an option but a strategy of early angiographic assessment is recommended for all patients. Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is now the dominant phenotype and outcomes after the acute phase are significantly worse than for STEMI. Many patients with NSTEMI remain undertreated and there is a large body of recent work seeking to define the most effective antithrombotic and antiplatelet regimens for this group of patients. The benefits of early invasive treatment for most patients are not in dispute but optimal timing remains unresolved. Cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for all patients with acute myocardial infarction but take-up rates are disappointing. Home-based programmes are effective and may be more acceptable for many patients. Evidence for the benefits of lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy for secondary prevention continues to accumulate but the argument for omega-3 fatty acid supplements is now hard to sustain following recent negative trials. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for patients with severe myocardial infarction protect against sudden death but for primary prevention should be based on left ventricular ejection fraction measurements late (around 40 days) after presentation, earlier deployment showing no mortality benefit. HubMed – rehab

Indacaterol: a comprehensive review.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2013; 8: 353-63
Rossi A, Polese G

At present there is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, some nonpharmacologic treatments, such as rehabilitation and lung volume reduction surgery, as well as pharmacologic intervention, can relieve some of the patient’s symptoms and improve quality of life, while also reducing the rate of exacerbations and hospitalizations. There needs to be a paradigm shift away from the unjustified nihilistic approach to COPD towards considering it a preventable and treatable disease. After patients quit smoking and start to lead healthier lifestyles, long-acting bronchodilators, such as long-acting beta-adrenergic agents (LABA) and long-acting antimuscarinic agents (LAMA), are recommended as the cornerstone of treatment for COPD, either as monotherapy or in combination. COPD is characterized by a reduced maximum expiratory flow and slow forced emptying of the lungs, which progress over time and are not completely reversible. In this condition, gas gets trapped in the lungs and pulmonary hyperinflation occurs. LABA and LAMA improve airway patency and deflate the lungs. Indacaterol is the first once-daily LABA approved for treatment of COPD, and is administered by inhalation through the Breezhaler® device. The speed of bronchodilation is similar to that with salbutamol (ie, about five minutes) and longer (ie, 24 hours) than that with traditional LABA, with the same 12-hour effect as salmeterol and formoterol, both of which require twice-daily administration. This is why indacaterol has been called the “ultra-LABA”. On the one hand, the fast onset of action provides immediate relief of symptoms, and on the other, its constant 24-hour bronchodilation provides “pharmacologic stenting” which facilitates lung emptying, thereby decreasing trapped gas and pulmonary hyperinflation. Once-daily administration of a fast and long-acting bronchodilator can improve patient adherence with therapy, which is known to be a major problem for many medical treatments. Dose-finding trials have shown that 75 ?g is the minimum dose needed to achieve clinically important improvement. However, indacaterol 150 ?g and 300 ?g achieve an even greater improvement in lung function and patient-oriented outcomes. Further, these two doses of indacaterol significantly reduce pulmonary hyperinflation, thereby improving exercise tolerance and ability to perform day-to-day activities. It is more effective on lung volumes at the 300 ?g dose than formoterol, and better than salmeterol and tiotropium at the 150 ?g dose, at least in the acute setting. It is noteworthy that few studies document these results in patients with COPD and moderate airflow obstruction. These are exactly the kind of patients our research should be concentrating on, in view of the accelerated decay in forced expiratory volume in one second at this stage of the disease. Finally, all the relevant studies show that indacaterol is consistently well tolerated by patients with COPD at every stage, and that it has a high safety profile. HubMed – rehab

Determination of clinically relevant content for a musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum for physical medicine and rehabilitation residents.

Anat Sci Educ. 2013 Aug 6;
Lisk K, Flannery JF, Loh EY, Richardson D, Agur AM, Woods NN

To address the need for more clinical anatomy training in residency education, many postgraduate programs have implemented structured anatomy courses into their curriculum. Consensus often does not exist on specific content and level of detail of the content that should be included in such curricula. This article describes the use of the Delphi method to identify clinically relevant content to incorporate in a musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) residents. A two round modified Delphi involving PM&R experts was used to establish the curricular content. The anatomical structures and clinical conditions presented to the expert group were compiled using multiple sources: clinical musculoskeletal anatomy cases from the PM&R residency program at the University of Toronto; consultation with PM&R experts; and textbooks. In each round, experts rated the importance of each curricular item to PM&R residency education using a five-point Likert scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was used to determine consensus at the end of each round and agreement scores were used as an outcome measure to determine the content to include in the curriculum. The overall internal consistency in both rounds was 0.99. A total of 37 physiatrists from across Canada participated and the overall response rate over two rounds was 97%. The initial curricular list consisted of 361 items. After the second iteration, the list was reduced by 44%. By using a national consensus method we were able to objectively determine the relevant anatomical structures and clinical musculoskeletal conditions important in daily PM&R practice. Anat Sci Educ. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists. HubMed – rehab

Effects of a 6-Month Nurse-Led Self-Management Program on Comprehensive Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients with COPD Receiving Home Oxygen Therapy.

Rehabil Nurs. 2013 Aug 6;
Moriyama M, Takeshita Y, Haruta Y, Hattori N, Ezenwaka CE

This study was to examine the effectiveness of a nurse-led 6-month comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program for stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients receiving home oxygen therapy.A controlled clinical study was performed.Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with the intervention group, whereas conventional education was given to the control group.Fifteen participants were analyzed in each group. There were no improvements in physiological outcomes; however, the severity of dyspnea, social activity, and walking distance significantly improved in the intervention group, and consequently quality of life was improved. Three patients in the intervention group received treatment for cold-like-symptoms but did not require hospitalization. However, five patients in the control group received treatment for cold-like-symptoms and two required hospitalization.The findings demonstrate that our program contributes to patients’ learning of self-management skills and significantly improves dyspnea, social activity level, walking distance, and overall quality of life. HubMed – rehab

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