All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Incorporated Nanoparticles of Deoxycholic Acid-Conjugated Dextran for Treatment of CT26 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells.

All-trans retinoic acid-incorporated nanoparticles of deoxycholic acid-conjugated dextran for treatment of CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 485-93
Jeong YI, Chung KD, Kim da H, Kim YH, Lee YS, Choi KC

All-trans retinoic acid (RA)-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared using deoxycholic acid-conjugated dextran (DexDA). Anticancer activity of RA-incorporated DexDA nanoparticles were tested in vitro and in vivo.RA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared by dialysis. Antiproliferative and anti-invasive potential of RA-incorporated nanoparticles were studied using CT26 colorectal carcinoma cells.RA-incorporated nanoparticles have small particle sizes of around 70-300 nm and spherical shapes. The higher drug-feeding ratio and higher substitution degree of deoxycholic acid in the conjugates resulted in higher drug contents, lower loading efficiency, and larger particle size. RA release rate became slower at higher drug contents and higher substitution degree of deoxycholic acid in the DexDA conjugates. The antiproliferation activity, anti-invasive activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression of RA-incorporated nanoparticles against CT26 cells in vitro was similar to RA. However, RA-incorporated nanoparticles had superior antimetastatic activity in an animal pulmonary metastatic model of CT26 cells compared to RA itself.RA-incorporated nanoparticles showed similar anticancer activity in vitro and superior antimetastatic activity in vivo in a pulmonary metastatic model of CT26 cells. We suggest that RA-incorporated nanoparticles are promising vehicles for efficient delivery of RA.
HubMed – drug


Enhanced dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate using lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles: in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Int J Nanomedicine. 2013; 8: 461-75
Ozcan I, Azizo?lu E, Senyi?it T, Ozyaz?c? M, Ozer O

The objective of this study was to prepare a suitable formulation for dermal delivery of diflucortolone valerate (DFV) that would maintain the localization in skin layers without any penetration and to optimize efficiency of DFV. Drug-loaded lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles with high entrapment efficiency (86.8%), were successfully prepared by ionic interaction technique. Sustained release of DFV was achieved without any initial burst release. Nanoparticles were also incorporated into chitosan gel at different ratios for preparing a more suitable formulation for topical drug delivery with adequate viscosity. In ex-vivo permeation studies, nanoparticles increased the accumulation of DFV especially in the stratum corneum + epidermis of rat skin without any significant permeation. Retention of DFV from nanoparticle in chitosan gel formulation (0.01%) was twofold higher than commercial cream, although it contained ten times less DFV. Nanoparticles in gel formulations produced significantly higher edema inhibition in rats compared with commercial cream in in-vivo studies. Skin blanching assay using a chromameter showed vasoconstriction similar to that of the commercial product. There were no barrier function changes upon application of nanoparticles. In-vitro and in-vivo results demonstrated that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles in chitosan gel may be a promising carrier for dermal delivery of DFV in various skin disorders.
HubMed – drug


Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Patient Prefer Adherence. 2013; 7: 121-32
Olivares JM, Alptekin K, Azorin JM, Cañas F, Dubois V, Emsley R, Gorwood P, Haddad PM, Naber D, Papageorgiou G, Roca M, Thomas P, Martinez G, Schreiner A

Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively.The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January-March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence.Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication.Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness in order to improve adherence and minimize the consequences of relapse. Strategies focused on raising awareness of the importance of adherence are also warranted, with the aim of improving patient outcomes in schizophrenia.
HubMed – drug


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