Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex Among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China.

Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61660
Luo X, Duan S, Duan Q, Pu Y, Yang Y, Ding Y, Gao M, He N

To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China.A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants.In total, 455 (94.4%) out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR?=?2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43), ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo?=?2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities?=?3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62), higher education (OR1-6?=?1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR?7?=?2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06) and being ART-naive (OR?=?2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32). About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25?=?7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35?=?2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45?=?2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58), hazardous drinkers (OR?=?1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97) and drug users (OR?=?3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58) were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking.High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading. HubMed – drug


Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61646
Kourtis IC, Hirosue S, de Titta A, Kontos S, Stegmann T, Hubbell JA, Swartz MA

Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d.) compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ?50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma. HubMed – drug


Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61607
Mukherjee N, Carroll BL, Spees JL, Delay ER

Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. HubMed – drug


Latest trends in drugs of abuse – HIV infection and neuroAIDS.

Future Virol. 2013 Feb; 8(2): 121-127
Tiwari S, Nair MP, Saxena SK

Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In particular, HIV infection is associated with serious neurological complications, including neuroAIDS. Therefore, on 13-15 September 2012, the OMICS Group (USA) and Shailendra K Saxena (Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, India) hosted a symposium titled: ‘Drugs of Abuse – HIV Infection and NeuroAIDS: A Global Perspective’ that was cochaired by Jag H Khalsa and Jeymohan Joseph of the NIH, MD, USA, at the 3rd World Congress on Biotechnology, in Hyderabad, India. Renowned scientists from India and the USA highlighted a number of issues, including the epidemiology, causes and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuroAIDS, impact on health, and designing new treatment modalities (e.g., nanotherapeutics) for the treatment of neurological disorders. HubMed – drug