Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drinks: Are There Associated Negative Consequences Beyond Hazardous Drinking in College Students?

Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: Are there associated negative consequences beyond hazardous drinking in college students?

Addict Behav. 2013 Apr 17; 38(9): 2428-2432
Berger L, Fendrich M, Fuhrmann D

OBJECTIVE: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is prevalent among college students as is hazardous drinking, a drinking pattern that places one at risk for alcohol-related harm. The present study, therefore, examined associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences in college students. METHODS: Based on a probability sample conducted in 2010, participants were 606 undergraduate students aged 18-25. AmED consumption included lifetime and past year use. Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related consequences were measured during the past year. Point prevalence was used to estimate rates of AmED use, and chi-square, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used to examine associations between AmED use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: Lifetime and past year AmED use prevalence rates were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively. Hazardous drinkers who engaged in AmED use were significantly more likely than past year hazardous drinkers who did not engage in AmED use to have had unprotected sex (OR=2.35, CI 1.27-4.32). CONCLUSIONS: AmED use appears to be highly prevalent among college students, and AmED use may confer additional risk for unprotected sex beyond hazardous drinking. Unprotected sex has implications for public health, and students who drink hazardously and consume AmED may be at greater risk. HubMed – addiction


Association between DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, and ALDH2 genes and specific personality traits in alcohol- and opiate-dependent patients.

Behav Brain Res. 2013 May 16;
Wang TY, Lee SY, Chen SL, Huang SY, Chang YH, Tzeng NS, Wang CL, Hui Lee I, Yeh TL, Yang YK, Lu RB

The vulnerability of developing addictions is associated with genetic factors and personality traits. The predisposing genetic variants and personality traits may be common to all addictions or specific to a particular class of addiction. To investigate the relationship between genetic variances, personality traits, and their interactions in addiction is important. We recruited 175 opiate-dependent patients, 102 alcohol-dependent patients, and 111 healthy controls. All participants were diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria and assessed with Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), 5-HTT-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes were genotyped using PCR. The genotype frequency of the 5-HTTLPR and ALDH2 was significantly different between the patients and controls (P=0.013, P<0.001, respectively), and borderline significant (P=0.05) for DRD2 polymorphism. Both Novelty Seeking (NS) and Harm Avoidance (HA) scores were higher for patients (P<0.001). After stratification by candidate genes, addicts with ALDH2 *1/*1 interacting with the low-functional group of DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR genes have higher HA traits, whereas addicts with ALDH2 *1/*2 or *2/*2 and low-functional group of DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR genes have higher NS traits. We concluded that addicts, both alcohol- and opiate-dependent patients, have common genetic variants in DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR but specific for ALDH2. Higher NS and HA traits were found in both patient groups with the interaction with DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, and ALDH2 genes. The ALDH2 gene variants had different effect in the NS and HA dimension while the DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR genes did not. HubMed – addiction


Long-term loss of dopamine release mediated by CRF-1 receptors in the rat lateral septum after repeated cocaine administration.

Behav Brain Res. 2013 May 16;
Sotomayor-Zárate R, Renard GM, Araya KA, Carreño P, Fuentealba JA, Andrés ME, Gysling K

The lateral septum (LS) is a brain nucleus associated to stress and drug addiction. Here we show that dopamine extracellular levels in the lateral septum are under the control of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF). Reverse dialysis of 1?M stressin-1, a type 1 CRF receptor (CRF-R1) agonist, induced a significant increase of LS dopamine extracellular levels in saline-treated rats that was blocked by the co-perfusion of stressin-1 with CP-154526, a specific CRF-R1 antagonist. Repeated cocaine administration (15mg/kg; twice daily for 14 days) suppressed the increase in LS dopamine extracellular levels induced by CRF-R1 activation. This suppression was observed 24hours, as well as 21 days after withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration. In addition, depolarization-induced dopamine release in the LS was significantly higher in cocaine- compared to saline-treated rats. Thus, our results show that the activation of CRF-R1 in the LS induces a significant increase in dopamine extracellular levels. Interestingly, repeated cocaine administration induces a long-term suppression of the CRF-R1 mediated dopamine release and a transient increase in dopamine releasability in the LS. HubMed – addiction