[Alcohol Intoxication and Suicidality.]

[Alcohol Intoxication and Suicidality.]

Psychiatr Prax. 2013 Mar 18;
Wetterling T, Schneider B

Objective: Although there is a rich literature showing that addictive disorders are important risk factors for suicide, corresponding studies on suicidal behavior are rare. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of alcohol intoxication on suicidal behavior.Methods: Prospective study. All patients admitted to a psychiatric department providing the psychiatric services for a district of Berlin (250,000 inhabitants) within 15 month.Results: Within this period 184 persons were admitted after showing suicidal behaviour (n = 227 admissions). 54.3 % of them were alcohol intoxicated (BAC > 1 g/l). Apart from substance use disorders the most common diagnoses were adjustment disorders (41.0 %), followed by depressive disorders (27.3 %). 28.2 % committed a suicide attempt. All kinds of suicidal behaviour were accompanied by alcohol intoxication, particularly threatening of committing suicide. Persons admitted without alcohol ingestion frequently suffered from depression or schizophrenia.Conclusions: This study shows that persons showing the suicidal behaviour were frequently alcohol intoxicated. HubMed – addiction


The physiological role of orexin/hypocretin neurons in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness and neuroendocrine functions.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4: 18
Inutsuka A, Yamanaka A

The hypothalamus monitors body homeostasis and regulates various behaviors such as feeding, thermogenesis, and sleeping. Orexins (also known as hypocretins) were identified as endogenous ligands for two orphan G-protein-coupled receptors in the lateral hypothalamic area. They were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior, but they are mainly regarded as key modulators of the sleep/wakefulness cycle. Orexins activate orexin neurons, monoaminergic and cholinergic neurons in the hypothalamus/brainstem regions, to maintain a long, consolidated awake period. Anatomical studies of neural projections from/to orexin neurons and phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice revealed various roles for orexin neurons in the coordination of emotion, energy homeostasis, reward system, and arousal. For example, orexin neurons are regulated by peripheral metabolic cues, including ghrelin, leptin, and glucose concentration. This suggests that they may provide a link between energy homeostasis and arousal states. A link between the limbic system and orexin neurons might be important for increasing vigilance during emotional stimuli. Orexins are also involved in reward systems and the mechanisms of drug addiction. These findings suggest that orexin neurons sense the outer and inner environment of the body and maintain the proper wakefulness level of animals for survival. This review discusses the mechanism by which orexins maintain sleep/wakefulness states and how this mechanism relates to other systems that regulate emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis. HubMed – addiction


Assessing the immediate impact of normative drinking information using an immediate post-test randomized controlled design: Implications for normative feedback interventions?

Addict Behav. 2013 Feb 24; 38(6): 2252-2256
Cunningham JA, Wong HT

One alternative explanation for the observed impact of normative feedback interventions is that participants who receive normative information will just report reductions in their drinking rather than actually reducing the amount they drink. The current study tested the immediate impact of receiving normative information on self-reports of drinking. METHODS: A random half of participants (39 out of 80) were presented with normative information about college drinking and then asked information about their drinking. Participants in the control condition were not presented with the normative information before answering the questions about their drinking. RESULTS: Risky drinking participants presented with the normative information reported significantly less drinking as compared to those in the control condition (p<.05). HubMed – addiction


[Attitudes of Hungarian adults toward use of opioids in pain management.]

Orv Hetil. 2013 Mar 1; 154(12): 455-463
Biró E

Introduction: Though the most effective pain medication is already available in Western countries, cancer pain is often undertreated. The primary causes of this phenomenon are the fears of opioids, which haven’t been explored systematically in Hungary. Aims: Exploration of the attitudes toward opioids among healthy Hungarian adults. Methods: The participants (88/143 male/female, 29.47 ± 11.05 years) were asked to complete story of a patient who was suggested to accept opioid therapy. The stories were rated by independent raters on Likert-scales to access the strength of attitudes toward pain medication [1]. Results: Only an average 29.6% of the stories expressed positive attitudes, but varied fears (of addiction: 20.9%, nearing death: 10.5%, the inattention of the doctor: 4.7%), and hopes connected to alternative therapies (4.7%) emerged, too. Conclusions: The compliance of the patient and his/her family members is a very important factor of effective medical treatment, therefore individual attitudes must be considered. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 455-463. HubMed – addiction



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