Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health.

Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health.

Eur J Integr Med. 2013 Apr 1; 5(2): 126-140
Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Boyer NN, Koithan M, Brooks AJ

Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses.We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation.NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1-100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs’ large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs.Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host’s complex networks underlie effects.Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases. HubMed – drug


The diagnosis and treatment of giant cell arteritis.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2013 May; 110(21): 376-86
Ness T, Bley TA, Schmidt WA, Lamprecht P

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis in persons aged 50 and above (incidence, 3.5 per 100 000 per year). It affects cranial arteries, the aorta, and arteries elsewhere in the body, e.g., in the limbs.We selectively review the pertinent literature, including guidelines and recommendations from Germany and abroad.The typical symptoms of new-onset GCA are bitemporal headaches, jaw claudiacation, scalp tenderness, visual disturbances, systemic symptoms such as fever and weight loss, and polymyalgia. The diagnostic assessment comprises laboratory testing (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein), imaging studies (duplex sonography, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography), and temporal artery biopsy. The standard treatment is with corticosteroids (adverse effects: diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cataract, arterial hypertension). A meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials led to a recommendation for treatment with methotrexate to lower the recurrence rate and spare steroids. Patients for whom methotrexate is contraindicated or who cannot tolerate the drug can be treated with azathioprine instead.Giant cell arteritis, if untreated, progresses to involve the aorta and its collateral branches, leading to various complications. Late diagnosis and treatment can have serious consequences, including irreversible loss of visual function. HubMed – drug



Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2012; 9(1-2): e29-e33
Montano MM, Krishnamurthy N, Sripathy S

Our studies indicate that expression of antioxidative stress enzymes is upregulated by Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) in breast epithelial cell lines, providing protection against the genotoxic effects of estrogens and against estrogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis. This upregulation of antioxidative stress enzymes requires Estrogen Receptor beta (ER?) and human homolog of Xenopus gene which Prevents Mitotic Catastrophe (hPMC2). Further studies indicate that hPMC2 has a functional exonuclease domain that is required for upregulation of antioxidative stress enzymes by SERMs and repair of estrogen-induced abasic sites. HubMed – drug


Enhanced medication management services in the community: A win-win proposal from an economic, clinical and humanistic perspective.

Can Pharm J (Ott). 2013 May; 146(3): 162-8
Riley K

Pharmacists are now receiving reimbursement by the Ontario government to do medication reviews for patients on 3 or more medications. However, they are often too busy in the community setting to thoroughly review medications with patients. Having a designated pharmacist to provide medication reviews could increase the number of reviews performed.Step 1 involved developing a business plan to determine the number of medication reviews that needed to be done to pay a pharmacist a full-time salary. Step 2 involved establishing the core elements of medication therapy management that included medication review, a medication-related action plan, documentation and follow-up. In step 3, eligible patients were called and invited to attend an appointment to review their medications with the pharmacist. Upon completion of the medication reviews, a random group of patients were requested to complete a satisfaction survey after the medication review.Three hundred thirty-six patients received billable medication reviews from April 4 to July 27, 2012. Twenty-seven additional visits were performed as follow-up visits. Eighty pharmaceutical opinions met the eligibility criteria for billing. Fifteen patients received counselling for smoking cessation. Medication reviews were completed for 19 patients from 8 other pharmacies. Extra revenue was generated through the sales of replacements of expired products. An average of 2.08 drug-related problems per patients was identified. One hundred percent of the patients were very satisfied with the service.A full-time pharmacist position providing enhanced medication management services generated enough income to pay for a full-time pharmacist’s salary. The benefits to the patients were an increase in identification and resolution of drug-related problems, as well as an opportunity to receive disease state education and experience an improvement in disease states. Patients were extremely satisfied with the medication review process and the service provided to them. Can Pharm J 2013;146:162-168. HubMed – drug