Advances in Brain Stimulation for Depression.

Advances in brain stimulation for depression.

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Aug; 25(3): 217-24
Wani A, Trevino K, Marnell P, Husain MM

Major depressive disorder is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder that negatively impacts a large portion of the population. Although a range of antidepressant treatments have been developed, many patients are unable to obtain an adequate therapeutic response despite completing several antidepressant medication trials. As a result, neurostimulation treatment modalities have been developed as potential alternatives. This article provides an overview of advances in neurostimulation for treating depression.We conducted a comprehensive review of the neurostimulation literature to identify recent findings involving the description and rationale, efficacy, and side effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), and deep brain stimulation (DBS).VNS and TMS are the newest neurostimulation modalities that have been approved by the FDA for treating depression. VNS is approved for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), while TMS has demonstrated efficacy only for milder forms of TRD. Despite demonstrated efficacy, further research is needed to address certain limitations and/or determine how best to utilize these forms of neurostimulation. Investigational forms of neurostimulation include MST and DBS. Although MST and DBS have demonstrated promise as a depression treatment, research is still being conducted to determine and/or enhance their antidepressant properties.Although electroconvulsive therapy remains the primary and most effective treatment option for patients with severe TRD, there have been considerable gains in the field of neurostimulation. Many of the neurostimulation techniques described in this review represent promising treatment alternatives for patients with TRD. HubMed – depression

A comparison of comorbidity in body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Aug; 25(3): 210-6
Tükel R, Tihan AK, Oztürk N

The aim of this study is to compare 3 groups of patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and comorbid BDD and OCD with respect to clinical characteristics and to study their similarities and differences.Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with BDD, 20 diagnosed with comorbid BDD/OCD and 49 diagnosed with OCD were included in the study. Patients with BDD, comorbid BDD/OCD, and OCD were compared in terms of demographic and clinical variables and scores obtained from various scales.Patients in the comorbid BDD/OCD and OCD groups tended to have higher anxiety scores than in BDD group. Any depressive disorder was more common in the comorbid BDD/OCD and OCD groups than in the BDD group. A significantly higher proportion of patients with BDD/OCD had any anxiety disorder than those with BDD. Subjects with BDD were significantly more likely than subjects with OCD to have narcissistic and avoidant personality disorders and any Axis II personality disorder. Finally, the rate of any cluster B personality disorder was higher in the BDD and BDD/OCD groups than in the OCD group.Despite the similarities between BDD and OCD, these disorders appear to have different aspects especially on psychiatric comorbidity. HubMed – depression

Compulsive sexual behavior in young adults.

Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Aug; 25(3): 193-200
Odlaug BL, Lust K, Schreiber LR, Christenson G, Derbyshire K, Harvanko A, Golden D, Grant JE

Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is estimated to affect 3% to 6% of adults, although limited information is available on the true prevalence and impact of CSB in young adults. This epidemiological study aims to estimate the prevalence and health correlates of CSB using a large sample of students.The survey examined sexual behaviors and their consequences, stress and mood states, psychiatric comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning.The estimated prevalence of CSB was 2.0%. Compared with respondents without CSB, individuals with CSB reported more depressive and anxiety symptoms, higher levels of stress, poorer self-esteem, and higher rates of social anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, compulsive buying, pathological gambling, and kleptomania.CSB is common among young adults and is associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and a range of psychosocial impairments. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that CSB often may have significant associated morbidity. HubMed – depression

Ask Julie: Do I Need Inpatient Treatment For Depression & Cutting?
Julie Hanks, LCSW offers thoughts on the following questions…Q: “I have been depressed since I was 13 and have been cutting off and on since i was 14. Rece…