Adolescent Stress-Induced Epigenetic Control of Dopaminergic Neurons via Glucocorticoids.

Adolescent stress-induced epigenetic control of dopaminergic neurons via glucocorticoids.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Science. 2013 Jan 18; 339(6117): 335-9
Niwa M, Jaaro-Peled H, Tankou S, Seshadri S, Hikida T, Matsumoto Y, Cascella NG, Kano S, Ozaki N, Nabeshima T, Sawa A

Environmental stressors during childhood and adolescence influence postnatal brain maturation and human behavioral patterns in adulthood. Accordingly, excess stressors result in adult-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. We describe an underlying mechanism in which glucocorticoids link adolescent stressors to epigenetic controls in neurons. In a mouse model of this phenomenon, a mild isolation stress affects the mesocortical projection of dopaminergic neurons in which DNA hypermethylation of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene is elicited, but only when combined with a relevant genetic risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. These molecular changes are associated with several neurochemical and behavioral deficits that occur in this mouse model, all of which are blocked by a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. The biology and phenotypes of the mouse models resemble those of psychotic depression, a common and debilitating psychiatric disease.
HubMed – depression


Treatment Processes of Counseling for Children in South Sudan: A Multiple n = 1 Design.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Community Ment Health J. 2013 Jan 18;
Jordans MJ, Komproe IH, Tol WA, Nsereko J, de Jong JT

Studies into treatment processes in low-income settings are grossly lacking, which contributes to the scarcity of evidence-based psychosocial treatment. We conducted multiple n = 1 studies, with quantitative outcome indicators (depression-, PTSD- and anxiety- symptoms, hope) and qualitative process indicators (treatment- perceptions, content and progress) measured before, during and after counseling. We aimed to explore commonalities in treatment processes associated with change profiles within and between cases. The study was conducted in South Sudan with children aged between 10 and 15 years. Change profiles were associated with the quality of the counselor-client relationship (instilling trust and hope through self-disclosure, supportive listening and advice giving), level of client activation, and the ability of the counselor to match treatment strategies to the client’s problem presentation (trauma- and emotional processing, problem solving, cognitive strategies). With limited time, due to restricted resources in low-income settings, training courses can now be better focused on key treatment processes.
HubMed – depression


African American Men and Women’s Attitude Toward Mental Illness, Perceptions of Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Nurs Res. 2013 Jan 16;
Ward EC, Wiltshire JC, Detry MA, Brown RL

BACKGROUND:: Although research focused on African Americans with mental illness has been increasing, few researchers have addressed gender and age differences in beliefs, attitudes, and coping. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to examine African Americans’ beliefs about mental illness, attitudes toward seeking mental health services, and preferred coping behaviors and whether these variables differ by gender and age. METHODS:: An exploratory, cross-sectional survey design was used. Participants were 272 community-dwelling African Americans aged 25-72 years. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and general linear regression models. RESULTS:: Depression was the most common mental illness, and there were no gender differences in prevalence. Both men and women believed that they knew some of the symptoms and causal factors of mental illness. Their attitudes suggested they are not very open to acknowledging psychological problems, are very concerned about stigma associated with mental illness, and are somewhat open to seeking mental health services, but they prefer religious coping. Significant gender and age differences were evident in attitudes and preferred coping. DISCUSSION:: Our findings have implications for gender- and age-specific psychoeducation interventions and future research. For instance, psychoeducation or community awareness programs designed to increase openness to psychological problems and reduce stigma are needed. Also, exploration of partnerships between faith-based organizations and mental health services could be helpful to African Americans.
HubMed – depression


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