Addiction Rehab: Tobacco Addiction and Smoking Status in Heroin Addicts Under Methadone vs. Buprenorphine Therapy.

Tobacco Addiction and Smoking Status in Heroin Addicts under Methadone vs. Buprenorphine Therapy.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Mar; 9(3): 932-42
Pajusco B, Chiamulera C, Quaglio G, Moro L, Casari R, Amen G, Faccini M, Lugoboni F

AIMS OF THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION WERE: (i) to assess the prevalence of current smokers and relative smoking status among a large number of heroin addicts attending opioid-substitution therapy prevalence; (ii) to evaluate the relationship between the type (methadone, buprenorphine) and dosage of opioid substitution therapy and nicotine dependence. Three hundred and five (305) heroin addicts under opioid-substitution therapy were recruited at five Addiction Units. All participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic information, type and dose of opioid-substitution therapy, smoking history and status, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale (SDS). 298 subjects, out of 305 (97.2%) were smokers, with an average of 20.5 cigarette/day and a median FTND of 6. Our data confirmed the high prevalence of smokers among heroin addicts, the highest described in the literature to date among heroin addicts under substitution therapies, without any significant difference between methadone vs. buprenorphine therapy groups. There was no correlation between dose of methadone or buprenorphine and average number of cigarettes/day. Patients in substance abuse treatment very frequently smoke cigarettes and often die of tobacco-related diseases. Substance abuse treatment programs too often ignore tobacco use. We hope that these findings will help to incorporate smoking cessation in substance abuse treatments.
HubMed – addiction


Concurrent and predictive relationships between compulsive internet use and substance use: findings from vocational high school students in china and the USA.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Mar; 9(3): 660-73
Sun P, Johnson CA, Palmer P, Arpawong TE, Unger JB, Xie B, Rohrbach LA, Spruijt-Metz D, Sussman S

Purpose: Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) has increasingly become an area of research among process addictions. Largely based on data from cross-sectional studies, a positive association between CIU and substance use has previously been reported. This study presents gender and country-specific longitudinal findings on the relationships between CIU and substance use. Methods: Data were drawn from youth attending non-conventional high schools, recruited into two similarly implemented trials conducted in China and the USA. The Chinese sample included 1,761 students (49% male); the US sample included 1,182 students (57% male) with over half (65%) of the US youth being of Hispanic ethnicity. Path analyses were applied to detect the concurrent and predictive relationships between baseline and one-year follow-up measures of CIU level, 30-day cigarette smoking, and 30-day binge drinking. Results: (1) CIU was not positively related with substance use at baseline. (2) There was a positive predictive relationship between baseline CIU and change in substance use among female, but not male students. (3) Relationships between concurrent changes in CIU and substance use were also found among female, but not male students. (4) Baseline substance use did not predict an increase in CIU from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: While CIU was found to be related to substance use, the relationship was not consistently positive. More longitudinal studies with better measures for Internet Addiction are needed to ascertain the detailed relationship between Internet addiction and substance use.
HubMed – addiction


Abnormal brain activation of adolescent internet addict in a ball-throwing animation task: Possible neural correlates of disembodiment revealed by fMRI.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 8;
Kim YR, Son JW, Lee SI, Shin CJ, Kim SK, Ju G, Choi WH, Oh JH, Lee S, Jo S, Ha TH

While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience ‘disembodied state’. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (changing viewpoint) or same animations (fixed viewpoint). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency task and Changing viewpoint. Within-group analyses, the addiction group exhibited higher activation in thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses, the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation.
HubMed – addiction


Bilateral Lesions of the Thalamic Trigeminal Orosensory Area Dissociate Natural From Drug Reward in Contrast Paradigms.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Behav Neurosci. 2012 Jun 11;
Nyland JE, Alexander DN, Liang NC, Grigson PS

Substance abuse and addiction are associated with an apparent devaluation of, and inattention to, natural rewards. This consequence of addiction can be modeled using a reward comparison paradigm where rats avoid intake of a palatable taste cue that comes to predict access to a drug of abuse. Evidence suggests rats avoid intake following such pairings, at least in part, because the taste cue pales in comparison to the highly rewarding drug expected in the near future. In accordance, lesions of the gustatory thalamus or cortex eliminate avoidance of a taste cue when paired with either a drug of abuse or a rewarding sucrose solution, but not when paired with the aversive agent, LiCl. The present study used bilateral ibotenic acid lesions to evaluate the role of a neighboring thalamic structure, the trigeminal orosensory area (TOA), in avoidance of a gustatory cue when paired with sucrose (Experiment 1), morphine (Experiment 2), cocaine (Experiment 3), or LiCl (Experiment 4). The results show that the TOA lesion disrupts, but does not eliminate avoidance of a taste cue that predicts access to a preferred sucrose solution and leaves intact the development of a LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion. The lesion does, however, eliminate the suppression of intake of a taste cue when paired with experimenter-administered morphine or cocaine using our standard parameters. As such, this is the first manipulation found to dissociate avoidance of a taste cue when mediated by a sweet or by a drug of abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
HubMed – addiction



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6 Skill Sets Every Child Needs to Guard Against Addiction

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

David Sack, MD, is board certified in Psychiatry, Addiction Medicine, and Addiction Psychiatry. As CEO of Elements Behavioral Health he oversees addiction treatment programs such as Promises Treatment Centers in Malibu and Los Angeles, …
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These kids aren't all right — child stars who struggle with drug and alcohol

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Edward Furlong (Terminator 2: Judgment Day) has a history of drug addiction, Thomas Dekker (Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles) was recently arrested for a DUI. Even the most successful John Connor, Christian Bale (Terminator: Salvation), …
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Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Arrested again, his second stint at Salvation Army rehab lasted 11 months. Still, Guidry was sure he was doing just fine. "I'm not an addict," he told himself. "I'm just having fun." Out of rehab at 21, the first thing Guidry did was hit the bars.
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