Addiction Rehab: The Recovery Paradigm – a Model of Hope and Change for Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

The recovery paradigm – A model of hope and change for alcohol and drug addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Aust Fam Physician. 2012 Aug; 41(8): 593-7
Best DW, Lubman DI

Background Alcohol and drug disorders remain major health and social problems in Australia, contributing enormously to the global burden of disease and the everyday practice of primary care. A recent growth in recovery research and recovery focused policies are starting to have an impact in Australia, with implications for how we attempt to resolve these problems. Objective In this article we discuss recent international findings in recovery research, and explore their implications for primary care. Discussion Research indicates that over half of dependent substance users will eventually achieve stable recovery. Key predictors of recovery are active engagement in the community and immersion in peer support groups and activities. Recovery requires a twin track approach: enabling and supporting individual recovery journeys, while creating environmental conditions that enable and support a ‘social contagion’ of recovery, in which recovery is transmitted through supportive social networks and dedicated recovery groups, such as mutual aid.
HubMed – addiction


Extinction bursts in rats trained to self-administer nicotine or food in 1-h daily sessions.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Am J Transl Res. 2012; 4(4): 422-31
Pushparaj A, Pryslawsky Y, Forget B, Yan Y, Le Foll B

Extinction bursts are characterized by a temporary increase in responding when drug access is withheld from rats trained to self-administer drugs of abuse. Thus far, one study has examined extinction bursts for nicotine self-administration using a 23-h access paradigm [1]. Here we examined extinction bursts using previously published and unpublished data in which rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (0.03mg/kg/infusion) or food pellets (as a comparator) in 1-h sessions under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement followed by 1-h extinction sessions. Analysis of response rates during nicotine self-administration (NSA) was indicative of a loading phase, as response rates were significantly higher at the beginning of the session, which was not observed for food self-administration. At the start of extinction for both food and nicotine, although sessional response rates did not increase, there was an increase in response rate during the first 5-min of the first extinction session relative to self-administration. This transient extinction burst following nicotine was observed in a minority of subjects and correlated with the number of nicotine infusions obtained during self-administration. This transient extinction burst following food was observed in all subjects. Nicotine and food produce more transient extinction bursts compared to other drugs of abuse and only for a minority of animals in the case of nicotine. This study supports the presence of a loading phase in rats trained to self-administer nicotine in 1-r daily sessions and the presence of a transient extinction burst.
HubMed – addiction


Clinical applications of schizophrenia genetics: genetic diagnosis, risk, and counseling in the molecular era.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Appl Clin Genet. 2012 Feb 20; 5: 1-18
Costain G, Bassett AS

Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disease with documented clinical and genetic heterogeneity, and evidence for neurodevelopmental origins. Driven by new genetic technologies and advances in molecular medicine, there has recently been concrete progress in understanding some of the specific genetic causes of this serious psychiatric illness. In particular, several large rare structural variants have been convincingly associated with schizophrenia, in targeted studies over two decades with respect to 22q11.2 microdeletions, and more recently in large-scale, genome-wide case-control studies. These advances promise to help many families afflicted with this disease. In this review, we critically appraise recent developments in the field of schizophrenia genetics through the lens of immediate clinical applicability. Much work remains in translating the recent surge of genetic research discoveries into the clinic. The epidemiology and basic genetic parameters (such as penetrance and expression) of most genomic disorders associated with schizophrenia are not yet well characterized. To date, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the only established genetic subtype of schizophrenia of proven clinical relevance. We use this well-established association as a model to chart the pathway for translating emerging genetic discoveries into clinical practice. We also propose new directions for research involving general genetic risk prediction and counseling in schizophrenia.
HubMed – addiction



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