Addiction Rehab: Immunogenicity and Autoimmunity During Anti-TNF Therapy.

Immunogenicity and autoimmunity during anti-TNF therapy.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Autoimmun Rev. 2012 Nov 30;
Atzeni F, Talotta R, Benucci M, Salaffi F, Cassinotti A, Varisco V, Battellino M, Ardizzone S, Pace F, Sarzi-Puttini P

The introduction of anti-TNF agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD) or spondyloarthritis (SpA) revolutionised the therapeutic approach to patients with active disease who failed to respond to conventional therapy. However, patients with RA, CD and SpA who are treated with selective tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors may develop autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies. Anti-phospholipid antibodies, which are mainly detected by means of anti-cardiolipin assays, have also been found in RA patients receiving TNF blockers. There have been a number of reports of the development of anti-drug antibodies, of which those against infliximab can interfere with the pharmacokinetics of a drug and therefore with its effects. They may also cause acute and delayed infusion and injection site reactions. The onset of autoimmune diseases during biological treatment is a rare event, but it needs to be promptly recognised in order to plan appropriate patient management. Immunosuppressive drug addiction can reduce the induction of anti-TNF antibodies.
HubMed – addiction


Silexan, an essential oil from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia, is not recognized as benzodiazepine-like in rats trained to discriminate a diazepam cue.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Phytomedicine. 2012 Nov 30;
Silenieks LB, Koch E, Higgins GA

Recently, an essential oil of selected quality produced from the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. by steam distillation (Silexan) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of restlessness in case of anxious mood. Based on the observed clinical effects, it has been speculated that lavender oil may exert benzodiazepine-like action including the known dependence and abuse potential of this class of drugs. Although no evidence for such an activity was generated during the long-standing medicinal use of lavender oil, further preclinical investigations were now conducted to evaluate this potential side effect in more detail. Twelve adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate the benzodiazepine drug diazepam (2mg/kg i.p.) from saline using a two-lever operant procedure. After approximately 40 training sessions the majority of rats learned the discrimination and pre-treatment with ascending doses of diazepam (0.3-2mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose related generalization to the diazepam cue. In these same animals Silexan was administered to see if animals recognized the drug as “diazepam-like” i.e. generalized to diazepam or “saline-like”. Silexan tested at doses 3-30mg/kg i.p. produced almost exclusively (>90%) saline-like responding. Also there was no effect of Silexan on response rate, i.e. rate of lever pressing, at any dose suggesting that the test article is well tolerated and does not exert a sedating effect. In sum, Silexan has no diazepam-like interoceptive property in adult, male rats. This suggests that Silexan does not share the potential of benzodiazepines to induce the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction.
HubMed – addiction


Multimodal imaging and image analysis techniques for neuromodulation.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int Rev Neurobiol. 2012; 107: 235-52
Chakravarty MM

Functional neurosurgical procedures used to treat the debilitating motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and that target small subcortical structures have typically relied on semi-qualitative manual approaches that rely upon the establishing qualitative between volumetric imaging data and print atlases. This chapter reviews many new high -precision and -accuracy techniques that can be used for the full automated localization of these targets. These techniques rely on the a priori development of neuroanatomical atlases derived from magnetic resonance imaging data, high-resolution identification of subcortical structures from histology, and spatially localized data bases of intra-operative recordings and successful surgical outcomes. Other novel structural and functional MRI techniques that allow for the direct visualization of thalamic sub nuclei are also reviewed.
HubMed – addiction



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