Addiction Rehab: Highly Impulsive Rats: Modelling an Endophenotype to Determine the Neurobiological, Genetic and Environmental Mechanisms of Addiction.

Highly impulsive rats: modelling an endophenotype to determine the neurobiological, genetic and environmental mechanisms of addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Dis Model Mech. 2013 Jan 25;
Jupp B, Caprioli D, Dalley JW

Impulsivity describes the tendency of an individual to act prematurely without foresight and is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric co-morbidities, including drug addiction. As such, there is increasing interest in the neurobiological mechanisms of impulsivity, as well as the genetic and environmental influences that govern the expression of this behaviour. Tests used on rodent models of impulsivity share strong parallels with tasks used to assess this trait in humans, and studies in both suggest a crucial role of monoaminergic corticostriatal systems in the expression of this behavioural trait. Furtherore, rodent models have enabled investigation of the causal relationship between drug abuse and impulsivity. Here, we review the use of rodent models of impulsivity for investigating the mechanisms involved in this trait, and how these mechanisms could contribute to the pathogenesis of addiction.
HubMed – addiction


A comparison of scoring models for computerised mental health screening for federal prison inmates.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Jan 25;
Martin MS, Wamboldt AD, O’Connor SL, Fortier J, Simpson AI

BACKGROUND: There are high rates of mental disorder in correctional environments, so effective mental health screening is needed. Implementation of the computerised mental health screen of the Correctional Service of Canada has led to improved identification of offenders with mental health needs but with high rates of false positives. AIMS: The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of an iterative classification tree (ICT) approach to mental health screening compared with a simple binary approach using cut-off scores on screening tools. METHODS: A total of 504 consecutive admissions to federal prison completed the screen and were also interviewed by a mental health professional. Relationships between screening results and more extended assessment and clinical team discussion were tested. RESULTS: The ICT was more parsimonious in identifying probable ‘cases’ than standard binary screening. ICT was also highly accurate at detecting mental health needs (AUC?=?0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.90). The model identified 118 (23.4%) offenders as likely to need further assessment or treatment, 87% of whom were confirmed cases at clinical interview. Of the 244 (48.4%) offenders who were screened out, only 9% were clinically assessed as requiring further assessment or treatment. Standard binary screening was characterised by more false positives and a comparable false negative rate. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ICTs to interpret screening data on the mental health of prisoners needs further evaluation in independent samples in Canada and elsewhere. This first evaluation of the application of such an approach offers the prospect of more effective and efficient use of the scarce resource of mental health services in prisons. Although not required, the use of computers can increase the ease of implementing an ICT model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HubMed – addiction


Workplace drug testing in Italy – critical considerations.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Drug Test Anal. 2013 Jan 25;
Vignali C, Stramesi C, Morini L, Pozzi F, Collo G, Groppi A

Workplace drug testing (WDT) was established in Italy on 30 October 2007. Two tiers of survey are required: the first tier concerns drug testing on urine samples, the second involves both urine and hair analysis. Between July 2008 and December 2011, 10 598 workers’ urine samples and 72 hair samples for opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methylenedioxyamphetamines, methadone, and buprenorphine were tested in our laboratory. Urine analyses were performed by immunological screening (EMIT); hair analysis and confirmation tests in urine were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Employees tested positive in urine for drugs of abuse numbered 2.8% in 2008, 2.03% in 2009, 1.62% in 2010, and 1.43% in 2011. As regards the second level of analysis, we observed that only one-third of the workers who had been tested positive for drugs of abuse were referred to an Addiction Treatment Unit in order to verify drug addiction. Our experience shows that, four years after approval of the law on WDT, the percentage of workers positive for drugs of abuse in urine has reduced in comparison to the first year. Moreover, our data show that most of the times employees who tested positive are tardily referred or not referred at all to a Public Addiction Treatment Unit to verify drug addiction. This makes us believe that the legal provisions are widely disregarded not paying the right tribute to the fact that Italy is one of few European countries with legislation on WDT. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HubMed – addiction



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