Addiction Rehab: Cognitive Biases Toward Internet Game-Related Pictures and Executive Deficits in Individuals With an Internet Game Addiction.

Cognitive Biases toward Internet Game-Related Pictures and Executive Deficits in Individuals with an Internet Game Addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e48961
Zhou Z, Yuan G, Yao J

The cue-related go/no-go switching task provides an experimental approach to study individual’s flexibility in changing situations. Because Internet addiction disorder (IAD) belongs to the compulsive-impulsive spectrum of disorders, it should present cognitive bias and executive functioning deficit characteristics of some of these types of disorders. Until now, no studies have been reported on cognitive bias and executive function involving mental flexibility and response inhibition in IAD.A total of 46 subjects who met the criteria of the modified Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet addiction (YDQ) were recruited as an Internet game addiction (IGA) group, along with 46 healthy control individuals. All participants performed the Internet game-shifting task. Using hit rate, RT, d’ and C as the dependent measures, a three-way ANOVA (group × target × condition) was performed. For hit rate, a significant effect of group, type of target and condition were found. The group-target interaction effect was significant. For RT, significant effects were revealed for group and type of target. The group-target interaction effect was significant. Comparisons of the means revealed that the slowing down of IGA relative to NIA was more pronounced when the target stimuli were neutral as opposed to Internet game-related pictures. In addition, the group-condition interaction effect was significant. For d’, significant effects of group, type of target and condition were found. The group-target interaction effect was significant. For C, the type of target produced a significant effect. There was a positive correlation between the length of the addiction (number of years) and the severity of the cognitive bias.IGA present cognitive biases towards information related to Internet gaming. These biases, as well as poor executive functioning skills (lower mental flexibility and response inhibition), might be responsible for Internet game addiction. The assessment of cognitive biases in IGA might provide a methodology for evaluation of therapeutic effects.
HubMed – addiction


Neural Responses to Smoking Stimuli Are Influenced by Smokers’ Attitudes towards Their Own Smoking Behaviour.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2012; 7(11): e46782
Stippekohl B, Winkler MH, Walter B, Kagerer S, Mucha RF, Pauli P, Vaitl D, Stark R

An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users) whereas others are discontent (dissonant users). Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli) of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula) in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex) compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli) are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli) seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant smokers experience difficulties in translating their attitudes into an actual behavior change.
HubMed – addiction


Functional magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine craving.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Clin Imaging. 2012 Nov; 36(6): 695-701
Yin JJ, Ma SH, Xu K, Wang ZX, Le HB, Huang JZ, Fang KM, Liao LM, Cai ZL

The study aimed to explore the abnormal activation of special brain areas associated with methamphetamine craving using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to reveal the neurobiological basis of addiction. Twenty-six methamphetamine addicts and 26 healthy subjects were scanned by brain fMRI while watching pictures of happy, sad, or methamphetamine to acquire resource data. SPM5 was used to analyze fMRI data to get related brain activation map, and it was found that methamphetamine addicts had high brain activation in cingulate and low activation in frontal lobe when watching methamphetamine-cue pictures. This study demonstrated that methamphetamine addicts had emotion-related brain activation abnormalities.
HubMed – addiction



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