Addiction Rehab: Cholangiographic Features in Opium-Addicted Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Iran.

Cholangiographic features in opium-addicted patients at a tertiary hospital in iran.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2012; 2012: 510536
Mohammad Alizadeh AH, Shams Afzali E, Sanati A, Shahnazi A, Mirsattari D, Zali MR

Background/Aims. Destructive and metabolic changes in hepatobiliary system have been demonstrated following opium use; however, cholangiographic features of bile ducts in opium-addicted patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are not clearly determined. We described these differences and assessed the effects of opium use on postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications. Methodology. One hundred and nineteen patients with the diagnosis of sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction according to the Geenen-Hogan classification were studied. Eight patients were confirmed opium-addicted and others were nonaddicted. Change of serum amylase concentrations after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and clinical diagnosis of addicted and non-addicted patients were compared. Results. Serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were similar between the two groups. Serum concentration of amylase before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was similar between them, whereas concentration of this enzyme was higher in nonaddicted ones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Regarding pathologic changes in papilla, opium addiction group in comparison with control group statistically showed more tumoral features (25.0% versus 5.4%) and ulcerated changes (12.5% versus 0.0%). Conclusions. Opium use can increase probability of papilla ulcerative and tumoral changes in patients with sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction. Postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography serum amylase level may be reduced following opium addiction.
HubMed – addiction


Auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in depressed patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Neural Transm. 2012 Nov 2;
Hein E, Nowak M, Kiess O, Biermann T, Bayerlein K, Kornhuber J, Kraus T

Invasive vagus nerve stimulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment in major depressive episodes. Recently, a novel non-invasive method of stimulating the vagus nerve on the outer canal of the ear has been proposed. In healthy subjects, a prominent fMRI BOLD signal deactivation in the limbic system was found. The present pilot study investigates the effects of this novel technique of auricular transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in depressed patients for the first time. A total of 37 patients suffering from major depression were included in two randomized sham controlled add-on studies. Patients were stimulated five times a week on a daily basis for the duration of 2 weeks. On days 0 and 14, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were assessed. In contrast to sham-treated patients, electrically stimulated persons showed a significantly better outcome in the BDI. Mean decrease in the active treatment group was 12.6 (SD 6.0) points compared to 4.4 (SD 9.9) points in the sham group. HAMD score did not change significantly in the two groups. An antidepressant effect of a new transcutaneous auricular nerve stimulation technique has been shown for the first time in this controlled pilot study. Regarding the limitations of psychometric testing, the risk of unblinding for technical reasons, and the small sample size, further studies are necessary to confirm the present results and verify the practicability of tVNS in clinical fields.
HubMed – addiction


Therapeutic Window for Striatal Dopamine D2/3 Receptor Occupancy in Older Patients With Schizophrenia: A Pilot PET Study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Oct 31;
Uchida H, Suzuki T, Graff-Guerrero A, Mulsant BH, Pollock BG, Arenovich T, Rajji TK, Mamo DC

OBJECTIVE:: In younger patients with schizophrenia, positron emission tomography (PET) studies have identified a therapeutic window of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy of 65%-80%. This type of empirical information is not available in late life. Our primary aim was to assess the effect of changes in D2/3 relative receptor occupancy (RRO) on clinical outcomes in this population. DESIGN:: Open-label intervention. SETTING:: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS:: Subjects with schizophrenia age 50 years or more who were clinically stable and previously maintained on oral risperidone for more than 6 months. INTERVENTION:: A dose reduction of risperidone of up to 40%, followed by a 3-month follow-up. MEASUREMENTS:: Dopamine D2/3 RRO in dorsal putamen was assessed, using the region of interest analysis of [C]raclopride PET scans, before and after the dose reduction. Clinical assessments included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. RESULTS:: Nine subjects (mean ± SD age: 58 ± 7 years; mean ± SD baseline risperidone dose: 3.4 ± 1.6 mg/day) participated in the study. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) were present in six subjects and were associated with 70% or more D2/3 RRO in the putamen (range: 70%-87%). Following the dose reduction, EPS resolved in five subjects. Two subjects experienced a clinical worsening at 52% and at less than 50% D2/3 RRO. CONCLUSION:: EPS diminished less than 70% D2/3 RRO, which suggests a lower therapeutic window for older patients with schizophrenia than that for younger patients. Although these findings have to be replicated in a larger sample, they have important implications for future drug development and clinical guidelines in late-life schizophrenia.
HubMed – addiction



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