Addiction Rehab: Application of Person-Centered Medicine in Addiction.

Application of person-centered medicine in addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int J Pers Cent Med. 2012 Jun; 2(2): 240-249
Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Ridenour T, Bogen D

This article discusses human individuality within a lifespan developmental perspective. The practical application of an individual differences framework for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of addiction is described. A brief overview of the methods conducive to knowledge development within the rubric of person-centered medicine that are available to practitioners working in office and clinic settings concludes the discussion.
HubMed – addiction


(Mis) perceptions and interactions of sleep specialists and generalists: obstacles to referrals to sleep specialists and the multidisciplinary team management of sleep disorders.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Clin Sleep Med. 2012; 8(6): 633-42
Hayes SM, Murray S, Castriotta RJ, Landrigan CP, Malhotra A

This study assessed generalists’ perceptions and challenges in providing care to sleep disorders patients and the role of sleep specialists in improving gaps in care.A mixed-method approach included qualitative (semi-structured interviews, discussion groups) and quantitative (online surveys) data collection techniques regarding care of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and shift work disorder (SWD).Participants: OSA: generalists n = 165, specialists (internists, neurologists, psychiatrists, pulmonologists) n = 12; SWD: generalists n = 216, specialists n = 108. Generalists reported challenges in assessing sleep disorders and diagnosing patients with sleep complaints. Generalists lacked confidence (selected ? 3 on a 5-pt Likert scale) in managing polypharmacy and drug interactions (OSA: 54.2%; SWD: 62.6%), addiction (OSA: 61.8%), and continuous positive airway pressure (OSA: 66.5%). Generalists in both studies reported deficits in knowledge of monitoring sleep disorders (OSA: 57.7%; SWD: 78.7%), rather relying on patients’ subjective reports; 23% of SWD generalists did not identify SWD as a medical condition. Challenges to generalist-specialist collaboration were reported, with 66% of generalists and 68% of specialists in the SWD study reporting lack of coordination as a barrier. Generalists reported lack of consistency in sleep medicine and a perceived lack of value in consulting with sleep specialists.Knowledge and attitudinal challenges were found in primary care of patients with sleep disorders. Sleep specialists need to clarify and educate practitioners regarding primary care’s approach. CITATION: Hayes SM; Murray S; Castriotta RJ; Landrigan CP; Malhotra A. (Mis) perceptions and interactions of sleep specialists and generalists: obstacles to referrals to sleep specialists and the multidisciplinary team management of sleep disorders. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(6):633-642.
HubMed – addiction


The Global Body Examination (GBE). A useful instrument for evaluation of respiration.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Adv Physiother. 2012 Dec; 14(4): 146-154
Friis S, Kvåle A, Opjordsmoen S, Bunkan BH

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Assessment of respiration is important in medicine and physical therapy. As respiration is multifaceted, we need several specific examination methods. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for examination of visible respiratory movements, by extracting from two examinations the items with best ability to discriminate among healthy controls, patients with pain disorders and patients with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Two physiotherapists independently examined 132 individuals (34 healthy persons, 32 with localized pain, 32 with widespread pain and 34 with psychoses). Items were assigned to subscales by explorative factor analysis. Internal consistency of subscales was examined with Cronbach’s alpha. To examine validity, one-way analysis of variance and the area under the curve (AUC) were used. RESULTS: WE IDENTIFIED FOUR SUBSCALES: Tension, Position of Thorax, Basal respiration and Thoracic movements. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.86. The subscales’ discriminating ability was excellent between healthy controls and patients, and fair between patients with localized pain and the two other patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: The respiration domain of the new Global Body Examination has 21 items, which comprise four subscales with high internal consistency and good ability to discriminate between healthy persons and patients with pain disorders or psychosis.
HubMed – addiction


Dual inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL strikingly enhances PI3K inhibition-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through a GSK3- and Bim-dependent mechanism.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Cancer Res. 2012 Dec 12;
Rahmani M, Aust MM, Attkisson E, Williams DC, Ferreira-Gonzalez A, Grant S

Effects of concomitant inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) were examined in human myeloid leukemia cells. Tetracycline-inducible Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL dual knockdown sharply increased PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitor lethality. Conversely, inducible knockdown or dominant-negative AKT increased whereas constitutively active AKT reduced lethality of the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor ABT-737. Furthermore, PI3K/mTOR inhibitors (e.g., BEZ235, PI-103) synergistically increased ABT-737-mediated cell death in multiple leukemia cell lines and reduced colony-formation in leukemic but not normal CD34+ cells. Notably, increased lethality was observed in 4/6 primary AML specimens. Responding, but not non-responding, samples exhibited basal AKT phosphorylation. PI3K/mTOR inhibitors markedly down-regulated Mcl-1 but increased Bim binding to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL; the latter effect was abrogated by ABT-737. Combined treatment also markedly diminished Bax/Bak binding to Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Bax, Bak, or Bim (BCL2L11) knockdown, or Mcl-1 over-expression significantly diminished regimen-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, pharmacologic inhibition or shRNA knockdown of GSK3?/? significantly attenuated Mcl-1 down-regulation and decreased apoptosis. In a systemic AML xenograft model, dual tet-inducible knockdown of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL sharply increased BEZ235 anti-leukemic effects. In a subcutaneous xenograft model, BEZ235 and ABT-737 co-administration significantly diminished tumor growth, down-regulated Mcl-1, activated caspases, and prolonged survival. Together, these findings suggest that anti-leukemic synergism between PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors and BH3 mimetics involves multiple mechanisms, including Mcl-1 down-regulation, release of Bim from Bcl-2/Bcl-xL as well as Bak and Bax from Mcl-1/Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, and GSK3?/?, culminating in Bax/Bak activation and apoptosis. They also argue that combining PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors with BH3-mimetics warrants attention in AML, particularly in the setting of basal AKT activation and/or addiction.
HubMed – addiction



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