Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance.

Acute Psychological Stress Results in the Rapid Development of Insulin Resistance.

J Endocrinol. 2013 Feb 26;
Li L, Li X, Zhou W, Messina J

In recent years, the roles of chronic stress and depression as an independent risk factor for decreased insulin sensitivity and the development of diabetes have been increasingly recognized. However, an understanding and the mechanisms linking insulin resistance and acute psychological stress are very limited. We hypothesized that acute psychological stress may cause the development of insulin resistance, which may be a risk factor in developing type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis in a well-established mouse model using 180 episodes of inescapable foot shock (IES), followed by a behavioral escape test. In this study, mice that received IES treatment were tested for acute insulin resistance by measuring glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. When compared to normal and sham mice, mice that were exposed to IES resulting in escape failure (defined as IES with behavioral escape failure) displayed elevated blood glucose levels in both glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests. Furthermore, mice with IES exposure and behavioral escape failure exhibited impaired hepatic insulin signaling via the insulin-induced insulin receptor / insulin receptor substrate 1 / Akt pathway, without affecting similar pathways in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and brain. Additionally, a rise in murine growth-related oncogene KC/GRO was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in IES mice, suggesting a mechanism by which psychological stress by IES may influence glucose metabolism. The present results indicate that psychological stress induced by IES can acutely alter hepatic responsiveness to insulin and affect whole-body glucose metabolism. HubMed – depression


The frequency, longitudinal course, clinical associations, and causes of emotional distress during primary treatment of cerebral glioma.

Neuro Oncol. 2013 Feb 26;
Rooney AG, McNamara S, Mackinnon M, Fraser M, Rampling R, Carson A, Grant R

BackgroundRelatively little is known about the frequency, longitudinal course, independent associations, and reported causes of emotional distress in adults with primary cerebral glioma. We aimed to describe these features in an observational study.MethodsThis was a twin-center prospective cohort study. Eligible adults were those with a new histological diagnosis of glioma who were receiving active management. Distress was measured using the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and problem checklist. Subjects were sampled at 3 timepoints: T1 (shortly after starting chemo/radiotherapy), T2 (3 months later), and T3 (6 months later).ResultsT1 n = 154; T2 n = 103; T3 n = 83. Significant distress was present in 36.4 ± 7.6% at T1, 35.9 ± 9.3% at T2, and 33.7 ± 10.2% at T3. Longitudinally, subjects with high distress at T1 (median Distress Thermometer score = 8; interquartile range [IQR] 7-9) remained highly distressed on follow-up (T2 median = 8, IQR 6-8; T3 median = 7, IQR 5-8) (Friedman test P = .304). Younger age, functional impairment, and concurrent major depressive disorder were independently associated with high distress (logistic regression ?(2) for model = 39.882, P < .001, R(2) = 0.312). The most frequently reported causes of distress were worry, fatigue, sleep difficulties, and sadness. Emotional difficulties were among the most common causes of distress at all 3 timepoints.ConclusionsAt each timepoint, one-third of patients reported significant emotional distress, which persisted during follow-up among those initially highly distressed. Young, functionally impaired, and depressed glioma patients may particularly benefit from increased support. HubMed – depression


Surviving genocide in Srebrenica during the early childhood and adolescent personality.

Croat Med J. 2013 Feb 15; 54(1): 55-64
Kravic N, Pajevic I, Hasanovic M

Aim. To examine how the experience of genocide in Srebrenica in the early childhood (ages 1-5) influences the psychological health in adolescence. Methods. This study included 100 school-attending adolescents, age 15-16 (born in 1990-91) who were divided in two groups according to the place of residence from 1992-1995: the Srebrenica group – adolescents who lived in Srebrenica during the siege and the non-Srebrenica group who lived in the “free territory,” were not wounded, and experienced no losses. We used the socio-demographic questionnaire created for the purposes of our study and the War Trauma Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Stress Reactions Questionnaire, Self-report Depressive Scale (Zung), Freiburg Personality Inventory, and the Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results. Srebrenica adolescents experienced significantly more traumatic experiences (14.26±3.11 vs 4.86±3.16, P<0.001). Although there was no signifcant difference in the total score of posttraumatic stress reactions and intensity of depression between the two groups, significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress reaction were noticed for several specific questions. The most prominent defense mechanisms in both groups were projection, intellectualization, and reactive formation. Srebrenica adolescents had higher sociability levels (34.7% vs 16.0%, ?(2)=7.231, P=0.020). Conclusion. Srebrenica adolescents reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability. Our findings could be used for planning treatment and improving communication and overcoming traumas in war-affected areas. HubMed – depression



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