Access to Cardiac Rehabilitation Does Not Equate to Attendance.

Access to cardiac rehabilitation does not equate to attendance.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2013 Apr 17;
Clark RA, Coffee N, Turner D, Eckert KA, van Gaans D, Wilkinson D, Stewart S, Tonkin AM

Background/Aims:Timely access to appropriate cardiac care is critical for optimizing positive outcomes after a cardiac event. Attendance at cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remains less than optimal (10%-30%). Our aim was to derive an objective, comparable, geographic measure reflecting access to cardiac services after a cardiac event in Australia.Methods:An expert panel defined a single patient care pathway and a hierarchy of the minimum health services for CR and secondary prevention. Using geographic information systems a numeric/alpha index was modelled to describe access before and after a cardiac event. The aftercare phase was modelled into five alphabetical categories: from category A (access to medical service, pharmacy, CR, pathology within 1 h) to category E (no services available within 1 h).Results:Approximately 96% or 19 million people lived within 1 h of the four basic services to support CR and secondary prevention, including 96% of older Australians and 75% of the indigenous population. Conversely, 14% (64,000) indigenous people resided in population locations that had poor access to health services that support CR after a cardiac event.Conclusion:Results demonstrated that the majority of Australians had excellent ‘geographic’ access to services to support CR and secondary prevention. Therefore, it appears that it is not the distance to services that affects attendance. Our ‘geographic’ lens has identified that more research on socioeconomic, sociological or psychological aspects to attendance is needed. HubMed – rehab


Undernutrition in Patients with COPD and Its Treatment.

Nutrients. 2013; 5(4): 1316-1335
Itoh M, Tsuji T, Nemoto K, Nakamura H, Aoshiba K

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the lung and whole body caused mainly by tobacco smoking. Patients with advanced COPD are in a state of undernutrition, referred to as pulmonary cachexia; the exercise performance and quality of life (QOL) of these patients are deteriorated, the vital prognosis is unfavorable, and the medico-economic burden posed by poorly nourished COPD patients is high. The mainstays of COPD treatment are pharmacotherapy, mainly with bronchodilators, and non-pharmacotherapeutic approaches such as respiratory rehabilitation and nutrition counseling. Nutritional supplement therapy, consisting primarily of high calorie intake, has been demonstrated to be effective for maintaining and improving the muscle strength and exercise tolerance in poorly nourished COPD patients. The efficacy of intake of various nutrients, besides a high calorie intake, for amelioration of the disease state of COPD has also been reported. The roles of adipokines in the pathophysiology of COPD have begun to receive attention recently, and not only their regulatory effects on appetite and nutritional status, but also their influence on systemic inflammation have been increasingly clarified. We review the papers on COPD and nutrition and discuss the role of nutritional supplement therapy in the treatment of COPD. HubMed – rehab


Exercise Therapy Augments the Ischemia-Induced Proangiogenic State and Results in Sustained Improvement after Stroke.

Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14(4): 8570-8584
Ma Y, Qiang L, He M

The induction of angiogenesis will stimulate endogenous recovery mechanisms, which are involved in the long-term repair and restoration process of the brain after an ischemic event. Here, we tested whether exercise influences the pro-angiogenic factors and outcomes after cerebral infarction in rats. Wistar rats were exposed to two hours of middle-cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. Different durations of treadmill training were performed on the rats. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-related genes and proteins were higher over time post-ischemia, and exercise enhanced their expression. Sixteen days post-ischemia, the regional cerebral blood flow in the ischemic striatum was significantly increased in the running group over the sedentary. Although no difference was seen in infarct size between the running and sedentary groups, running evidently improved the neurobehavioral score. The effects of running on MMP2 expression, regional cerebral blood flow and outcome were abolished when animals were treated with bevacizumab (BEV), a VEGF-targeting antibody. Exercise therapy improves long-term stroke outcome by MMP2-VEGF-dependent mechanisms related to improved cerebral blood flow. HubMed – rehab


Grafting of neural stem and progenitor cells to the hippocampus of young, irradiated mice causes gliosis and disrupts the granule cell layer.

Cell Death Dis. 2013; 4: e591
Sato Y, Shinjyo N, Sato M, Osato K, Zhu C, Pekna M, Kuhn HG, Blomgren K

Ionizing radiation persistently reduces the pool of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which may explain some of the learning deficits observed in patients treated with radiotherapy, particularly pediatric patients. A single dose of 8?Gy irradiation (IR) was administered to the brains of postnatal day 14 (P14) C57BL/6 mice and 1.0 × 10(5) bromodeoxyuridine-labeled, syngeneic NSPCs were injected into the hippocampus 1 day, 1 week or 6 weeks after IR. Cell survival and phenotype were evaluated 5 weeks after grafting. When grafted 1 day post-IR, survival and neuronal differentiation of the transplanted NSPCs were lower in irradiated brains, whereas the survival and cell fate of grafted cells were not significantly different between irradiated and control brains when transplantation was performed 1 or 6 weeks after IR. A young recipient brain favored neuronal development of grafted cells, whereas the older recipient brains displayed an increasing number of cells developing into astrocytes or unidentified cells. Injection of NSPCs, but not vehicle, induced astrogliosis and reduced thickness of the dorsal blade of the GCL after 5 months. In summary, we demonstrate that age and interval between IR and grafting can affect survival and differentiation of grafted NSPCs. The observed long-term gliosis and degeneration warrant caution in the context of NSPC grafting for therapeutical purposes. HubMed – rehab