A Whole-Grain-Rich Diet Reduces Urinary Excretion of Markers of Protein Catabolism and Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Healthy Men After One Week.

A Whole-Grain-Rich Diet Reduces Urinary Excretion of Markers of Protein Catabolism and Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Healthy Men after One Week.

J Nutr. 2013 Apr 24;
Ross AB, Pere-Trépat E, Montoliu I, Martin FP, Collino S, Moco S, Godin JP, Cléroux M, Guy PA, Breton I, Bibiloni R, Thorimbert A, Tavazzi I, Tornier L, Bebuis A, Bruce SJ, Beaumont M, Fay LB, Kochhar S

Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism. HubMed – eating


Effect of preterm birth and birth weight on eating behavior at 2 y of age.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr 24;
Migraine A, Nicklaus S, Parnet P, Lange C, Monnery-Patris S, Des Robert C, Darmaun D, Flamant C, Amarger V, Rozé JC

BACKGROUND: Preterm infants frequently present eating difficulties in early childhood. Determinants of these difficulties are not known. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the influence of neonatal and maternal characteristics on eating behaviors at 2 y of age. DESIGN: The following 2 cohorts were compared: 234 preterm children born <33 wk of gestational age from the POLYmorphisme génétique, Nutrition et Comportement Alimentaire cohort and 245 term children from the Observation des Préférences ALImentaires du Nourrisson et de l'Enfant cohort. Eating behaviors were assessed by using the validated Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire, which assesses the following 2 dimensions: a low drive to eat and narrow food repertoire. Each dimension was graded from 2 to 10 with more severe difficulties reflected by a higher score. Children in the upper quintile were classified as having eating disorders. RESULTS: Compared with term children, preterm children had a worse drive-to-eat score (4.3 ± 1.6 compared with 3.6 ± 1.5, respectively; P = 0.001) and a marginally lower food-repertoire score (5.0 ± 1.5 compared with 4.8 ± 1.6, respectively; P = 0.05). In a multilevel logistic regression model, female sex [adjusted OR (aOR): 1.76; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.88; P = 0.025] and birth weight less than -1 z score (aOR: 2.88; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.67; P = 0.002) but not gestational age were associated with a worse drive to eat. A maternal level of education beyond high school was associated with lower risk of a poor food-repertoire score (aOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.90; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Preterm children have more eating difficulties than term children do, but after adjustment for maternal and neonatal characteristics, gestational age is not associated with impaired eating behaviors at the age of 2 y. Female sex, a low maternal level of education, and less than -1 SD intrauterine growth are associated with eating difficulties at 2 y of age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT 00663572. HubMed – eating


Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism.

Proc Biol Sci. 2013; 280(1761): 20130553
Gingins S, Werminghausen J, Johnstone RA, Grutter AS, Bshary R

In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to ‘cheat’ and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim’s capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively against their preference (which corresponds to cooperatively eating client fish ectoparasites), provided that their preference for alternative food was weak. Under opposite conditions, cleaners fed selectively according to their own preference (which corresponds to cheating by eating client mucus). By contrast, a non-cleaning fish species, Halichoeres melanurus, failed to adjust its foraging behaviour under these same conditions. Thus, cleaners appear to have evolved the power to strategically adjust their levels of cooperation according to the circumstances. HubMed – eating