A Systems-Level Approach for Investigating Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation.

A Systems-Level Approach for Investigating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57050
Xu Z, Fang X, Wood TK, Huang ZJ

Prevention of the initiation of biofilm formation is the most important step for combating biofilm-associated pathogens, as the ability of pathogens to resist antibiotics is enhanced 10 to 1000 times once biofilms are formed. Genes essential to bacterial growth in the planktonic state are potential targets to treat biofilm-associated pathogens. However, the biofilm formation capability of strains with mutations in these essential genes must be evaluated, since the pathogen might form a biofilm before it is eliminated. In order to address this issue, this work proposes a systems-level approach to quantifying the biofilm formation capability of mutants to determine target genes that are essential for bacterial metabolism in the planktonic state but do not induce biofilm formation in their mutants. The changes of fluxes through the reactions associated with the genes positively related to biofilm formation are used as soft sensors in the flux balance analysis to quantify the trend of biofilm formation upon the mutation of an essential gene. The essential genes whose mutants are predicted not to induce biofilm formation are regarded as gene targets. The proposed approach was applied to identify target genes to treat infections. It is interesting to find that most essential gene mutants exhibit high potential to induce the biofilm formation while most non-essential gene mutants do not. Critically, we identified four essential genes, , , , and , that constitute gene targets to treat . They have been suggested by existing experimental data as potential drug targets for their crucial role in the survival or virulence of . It is also interesting to find that tends to survive the essential-gene mutation treatment by mainly enhancing fluxes through 8 metabolic reactions that regulate acetate metabolism, arginine metabolism, and glutamate metabolism. HubMed – drug


Drug Absorption Efficiency in Caenorhbditis elegans Delivered by Different Methods.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56877
Zheng SQ, Ding AJ, Li GP, Wu GS, Luo HR

BACKGROUND: has being vigorously used as a model organism in many research fields and often accompanied by administrating with various drugs. The methods of delivering drugs to worms are varied from one study to another, which make difficult in comparing results between studies. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the drug absorption efficiency in using five frequently used methods with resveratrol with low aqueous solubility and water-soluble 5-Fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (FUDR) as positive compounds. The drugs were either applied to the LB medium with bacteria OP50, before spreading onto Nematode Growth Medium (NGM) plates (LB medium method), or to the NGM with live (NGM live method) or dead bacteria (NGM dead method), or spotting the drug solution to the surface of plates directly (spot dead method), or growing the worms in liquid medium (liquid growing method). The concentration of resveratrol and FUDR increased gradually within and reached the highest during 12 hours to one day and then decreased slowly. At the same time point, the higher the drug concentration, the higher the metabolism rate. The drug concentrations in worms fed with dead bacteria were higher than with live bacteria at the same time point. Consistently, the drug concentration in medium with live bacteria decreased much faster than in medium with dead bacteria, reach to about half of the original concentration within 12 hours. CONCLUSION: Resveratrol with low aqueous solubility and water-soluble FUDR have the same absorption and metabolism pattern. The drug metabolism rate in worms was both dosage and time dependent. NGM dead method and liquid growing method achieved the best absorption efficiency in worms. The drug concentration within worms was comparable with that in mice, providing a bridge for dose translation from worms to mammals. HubMed – drug


Silencing of human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 enhances rituximab-induced death and chemosensitization in B-cell lymphoma.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56829
Wang K, Jiang Y, Zheng W, Liu Z, Li H, Lou J, Gu M, Wang X

Rituximab is the first line drug to treat non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) alone or in combination with chemotherapy. However, 30-40% of B-NHL patients are unresponsive to rituximab or resistant after therapy. Human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4 (hPEBP4) is a novel member of PEBP family and functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule. In this study, we found hPEBP4 to be expressed in up to 90% of B-cell lymphoma patients, but in only 16.7% of normal lymph nodes. Interestingly, hPEBP4 overexpression inhibited rituximab-mediated complement dependent cytotoxicity (R-CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in B-NHL cells while downregulation of hPEBP4 augmented the therapeutic efficacy of rituximab both and . Furthermore, hPEBP4 silencing sensitized the primary B-acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) cells to R-CDC. During rituximab-mediated complement dependent cytotoxicity, hPEBP4 was recruited to the cell membrane in a PE-binding domain dependent manner and inhibited R-CDC induced calcium flux and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These events contributed to the decrease of cell death induced by R-CDC in B-cell lymphomas. Meanwhile, hPEBP4 knockdown potentiated the chemosensitization of the rituximab in B-cell lymphoma cells by regulating the expression of Bcl-xl, Cycline E, p21 and p53 and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Considering that hPEBP4 conferred cellular resistance to rituximab treatment and was preferentially expressed in lymphoma tissue, it could be a potential valuable target for adjuvant therapy for B-cell lymphoma. HubMed – drug


Molecular dynamics reveal binding mode of glutathionylspermidine by trypanothione synthetase.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56788
Koch O, Cappel D, Nocker M, Jäger T, Flohé L, Sotriffer CA, Selzer PM

The trypanothione synthetase (TryS) catalyses the two-step biosynthesis of trypanothione from spermidine and glutathione and is an attractive new drug target for the development of trypanocidal and antileishmanial drugs, especially since the structural information of TryS from has become available. Unfortunately, the TryS structure was solved without any of the substrates and lacks loop regions that are mechanistically important. This contribution describes docking and molecular dynamics simulations that led to further insights into trypanothione biosynthesis and, in particular, explains the binding modes of substrates for the second catalytic step. The structural model essentially confirm previously proposed binding sites for glutathione, ATP and two Mg ions, which appear identical for both catalytic steps. The analysis of an unsolved loop region near the proposed spermidine binding site revealed a new pocket that was demonstrated to bind glutathionylspermidine in an inverted orientation. For the second step of trypanothione synthesis glutathionylspermidine is bound in a way that preferentially allows N-glutathionylation of N-glutathionylspermidine, classifying N-glutathionylspermidine as the favoured substrate. By inhibitor docking, the binding site for N-glutathionylspermidine was characterised as druggable. HubMed – drug


1′-Acetoxychavicol Acetate Isolated from Alpinia galanga Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma in Mice.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56447
Seo JW, Cho SC, Park SJ, Lee EJ, Lee JH, Han SS, Pyo BS, Park DH, Kim BH

The World Health Organization reports that 235 million people are currently affected by asthma. This disease is associated with an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells, which results in the upregulation of cytokines that promote chronic inflammation of the respiratory system. The inflammatory response causes airway obstruction and can ultimately result in death. In this study we evaluated the effect of 1′-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from rhizomes in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. To generate the mouse model, BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of OVA and then challenged with OVA inhalation for 5 days. Mice in the vehicle control group were sensitized with OVA but not challenged with OVA. Treatment groups received dexamethasone, 25 mg/kg/day ACA, or 50 mg/kg/day ACA for 5 days. Asthma-related inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Our results showed that ACA reduced the infiltration of white blood cells (especially eosinophils) and the level of IgE in the lungs of mice challenged with OVA and suppressed histopathological changes such as airway remodeling, goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and glycoprotein secretion. In addition, ACA inhibited expression of the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and Th1 cytokines IL-12? and interferon-?. Because asthmatic reactions are mediated by diverse immune and inflammatory pathways, ACA shows promise as an antiasthmatic drug candidate. HubMed – drug