A Success Story: Togo Is Moving Toward Becoming the First Sub-Saharan African Nation to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis Through Mass Drug Administration and Countrywide Morbidity Alleviation.

A Success Story: Togo Is Moving toward Becoming the First Sub-Saharan African Nation to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis through Mass Drug Administration and Countrywide Morbidity Alleviation.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Apr; 7(4): e2080
Sodahlon YK, Dorkenoo AM, Morgah K, Nabiliou K, Agbo K, Miller R, Datagni M, Seim A, Mathieu E

HubMed – drug


Fingolimod Phosphate Attenuates Oligomeric Amyloid ?-Induced Neurotoxicity via Increased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Neurons.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61988
Doi Y, Takeuchi H, Horiuchi H, Hanyu T, Kawanokuchi J, Jin S, Parajuli B, Sonobe Y, Mizuno T, Suzumura A

The neurodegenerative processes that underlie Alzheimer’s disease are mediated, in part, by soluble oligomeric amyloid ?, a neurotoxic protein that inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation, disrupts synaptic plasticity, and induces the production of reactive oxygen species. Here we show that the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor (S1PR) agonist fingolimod phosphate (FTY720-P)-a new oral drug for multiple sclerosis-protects neurons against oligomeric amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity. We confirmed that primary mouse cortical neurons express all of the S1P receptor subtypes and FTY720-P directly affects the neurons. Treatment with FTY720-P enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurons. Moreover, blocking BDNF-TrkB signaling with a BDNF scavenger, TrkB inhibitor, or ERK1/2 inhibitor almost completely ablated these neuroprotective effects. These results suggested that the neuroprotective effects of FTY720-P are mediated by upregulated neuronal BDNF levels. Therefore, FTY720-P may be a promising therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. HubMed – drug


Effect of Phosphoglucosamine Mutase on Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities in M. smegmatis glmM Gene Knockdown Strain.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61589
Kang J, Xu L, Yang S, Yu W, Liu S, Xin Y, Ma Y

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is a direct glycosyl donor of linker unit (L-Rhamnose-D-GlcNAc) and an essential precursor of peptidoglycan in mycobacteria. Phosphoglucosamine mutase (GlmM) is involved in the formation of glucosamine-1-phosphate from glucosamine-6-phosphate, the second step in UDP-GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. We have demonstrated that GlmM protein is essential for the growth of M. smegmatis. To facilitate the analysis of the GlmM protein function in mycobacteria, a tetracycline inducible M. smegmatis glmM gene knockdown strain was constructed by using an antisense RNA technology. After induction with 20 ng/ml tetracycline, the expression of GlmM protein in glmM gene knockdown strain was significantly decreased, resulting in a decline of cell growth. The morphological changes of glmM gene knockdown strain induced with 20 ng/ml tetracycline have been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, insufficient GlmM protein reduced the biofilm formation and increased the sensitivity to isoniazid and ethambutol in M. smegmatis, indicating that GlmM protein had effect on the biofilm formation and the senstivity to some anti-tuberculosis drugs targeting the cell wall. These results provide a new insight on GlmM functions in mycobacteria, suggesting that GlmM could be a potential target for development of new anti-tuberculosis drug. HubMed – drug


Breast Cancer-Derived Microparticles Display Tissue Selectivity in the Transfer of Resistance Proteins to Cells.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61515
Jaiswal R, Luk F, Dalla PV, Grau GE, Bebawy M

Microparticles (MPs) play a vital role in cell communication by facilitating the horizontal transfer of cargo between cells. Recently, we described a novel “non-genetic” mechanism for the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells by intercellular transfer of functional P-gp, via MPs. MDR is caused by the overexpression of the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (MRP1). These transporters efflux anticancer drugs from resistant cancer cells and maintain sublethal intracellular drug concentrations. By conducting MP transfer experiments, we show that MPs derived from DX breast cancer cells selectively transfer P-gp to malignant MCF-7 breast cells only, in contrast to VLB100 leukaemic cell-derived MPs that transfer P-gp and MRP1 to both malignant and non-malignant cells. The observed transfer selectivity is not the result of membrane restrictions for intercellular exchange, limitations in MP binding to recipient cells or the differential expression of the cytoskeletal protein, Ezrin. CD44 (isoform 10) was found to be selectively present on the breast cancer-derived MPs and not on leukaemic MPs and may contribute to the observed selective transfer of P-gp to malignant breast cells observed. Using the MCF-7 murine tumour xenograft model we demonstrated the stable transfer of P-gp by MPs in vivo, which was found to localize to the tumour core as early as 24 hours post MP exposure and to remain stable for at least 2 weeks. These findings demonstrate a remarkable capacity by MPs to disseminate a stable resistant trait in the absence of any selective pressure. HubMed – drug