A Smartphone Application of Alcohol Resilience Treatment for Behavioral Self-Control Training.

A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012 Aug; 2012: 1976-9
Yu F, Albers J, Gao T, Wang M, Bilberg A, Stenager E

High relapse rate is one of the most prominent problems in addiction treatment. Alcohol Resilience Treatment (ART), an alcohol addiction therapy, is based on Cue Exposure Treatment, which has shown promising results in preliminary studies. ART aims at optimizing the core area of relapse prevention, and intends to improve patients’ capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper.
HubMed – addiction


The Functional DRD3 Ser9Gly Polymorphism (rs6280) Is Pleiotropic, Affecting Reward as Well as Movement.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2013; 8(1): e54108
Savitz J, Hodgkinson CA, Martin-Soelch C, Shen PH, Szczepanik J, Nugent A, Herscovitch P, Grace AA, Goldman D, Drevets WC

Abnormalities of motivation and behavior in the context of reward are a fundamental component of addiction and mood disorders. Here we test the effect of a functional missense mutation in the dopamine 3 receptor (DRD3) gene (ser9gly, rs6280) on reward-associated dopamine (DA) release in the striatum. Twenty-six healthy controls (HCs) and 10 unmedicated subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) completed two positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(11)C]raclopride using the bolus plus constant infusion method. On one occasion subjects completed a sensorimotor task (control condition) and on another occasion subjects completed a gambling task (reward condition). A linear regression analysis controlling for age, sex, diagnosis, and self-reported anhedonia indicated that during receipt of unpredictable monetary reward the glycine allele was associated with a greater reduction in D2/3 receptor binding (i.e., increased reward-related DA release) in the middle (anterior) caudate (p<0.01) and the ventral striatum (p<0.05). The possible functional effect of the ser9gly polymorphism on DA release is consistent with previous work demonstrating that the glycine allele yields D3 autoreceptors that have a higher affinity for DA and display more robust intracellular signaling. Preclinical evidence indicates that chronic stress and aversive stimulation induce activation of the DA system, raising the possibility that the glycine allele, by virtue of its facilitatory effect on striatal DA release, increases susceptibility to hyperdopaminergic responses that have previously been associated with stress, addiction, and psychosis. HubMed – addiction


Large scale association analysis for drug addiction: results from SNP to gene.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

ScientificWorldJournal. 2012; 2012: 939584
Guo X, Liu Z, Wang X, Zhang H

Many genetic association studies used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data to identify genetic variants for complex diseases. Although SNP-based associations are most common in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), gene-based association analysis has received increasing attention in understanding genetic etiologies for complex diseases. While both methods have been used to analyze the same data, few genome-wide association studies compare the results or observe the connection between them. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the data from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) and compared the results from the SNP-based and gene-based analyses. Our results suggest that the gene-based method complements the individual SNP-based analysis, and conceptually they are closely related. In terms of gene findings, our results validate many genes that were either reported from the analysis of the same dataset or based on animal studies for substance dependence.
HubMed – addiction


Adolescent Cocaine Exposure Causes Enduring Macroscale Changes in Mouse Brain Structure.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 30; 33(5): 1797-1803
Wheeler AL, Lerch JP, Chakravarty MM, Friedel M, Sled JG, Fletcher PJ, Josselyn SA, Frankland PW

Cocaine dependence is associated with abnormalities in brain structure in humans. However, it is unclear whether these differences in brain structure predispose an individual to drug use or are a result of cocaine’s action on the brain. This study investigates the impact of chronic cocaine exposure on brain structure and drug-related behavior in mice. Specifically, mice received daily cocaine or saline injections for 20 d during two developmental time periods: adolescence (27-46 d old) and young adulthood (60-79 d old). Following 30 d of abstinence, either fixed brain T2 weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired on a 7 T scanner at 32 ?m isotropic voxel dimensions or mice were assessed for sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. Three automated techniques (deformation-based morphometry, striatum shape analysis, and cortical thickness assessment) were used to identify population differences in brain structure in cocaine-exposed versus saline-exposed mice. We found that cocaine induced changes in brain structure, and these were most pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. Many of these changes occurred in brain regions previously implicated in addiction including the nucleus accumbens, striatum, insular cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial forebrain bundle. Furthermore, exposure to the same cocaine regimen caused sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of cocaine, and these effects were again more pronounced in mice exposed to cocaine during adolescence. These results suggest that altered brain structure following 1 month of abstinence may contribute to these persistent drug-related behaviors, and identify cocaine exposure as the cause of these morphological changes.
HubMed – addiction


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