A Review of the Evidence Regarding Associations Between Attachment Theory and Experimentally Induced Pain.

A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Apr; 17(4): 326
Meredith PJ

Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory. HubMed – rehab


Organ culture stability of the intervertebral disc: Rat versus rabbit.

J Orthop Res. 2013 Mar 1;
Seol D, Choe H, Ramakrishnan PS, Jang K, Kurriger GL, Zheng H, Lim TH, Martin JA

There is a need to develop mechanically active culture systems to better understand the role of mechanical stresses in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures that preserve the native IVD structure and adjacent vertebral bodies are preferred as model systems, but rapid ex vivo tissue degeneration limits their usefulness. The stability of rat and rabbit IVDs is of particular interest, as their small size makes them otherwise suitable for motion segment culture. The goal of this study was to determine if there are substantial differences in the susceptibility of rat and rabbit IVDs to culture-induced degeneration. Lumbar IVD motion segments were harvested from young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits and cultured under standard conditions for 14 days. Biochemical assays and safranin-O histology showed that while glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss was minimal in rabbit IVDs, it was progressive and severe in rat IVDs. In the rat IVD, GAG loss was concomitant with the loss of notochordal cells and the migration of endplate (EP) cells into the nucleus pulposus (NP). None of these changes were evident in the rabbit IVDs. Compared to rabbit IVDs, rat IVDs also showed increased matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and sharply decreased collagen type I and II collagen expression. Together these data indicated that the rabbit IVD was dramatically more stable than the rat IVD, which showed culture-related degenerative changes. Based on these findings we conclude that the rabbit motion segments are a superior model for mechanobiologic studies. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. HubMed – rehab


Depression in parents of children with cerebral palsy in bosnia and herzegovina.

Acta Med Iran. 2012 Dec; 50(12): 819-21
Mehmedinovi? S, Sinanovi? O, Ahmetovi? S

The aim of the research is to examine depression in parents of children with cerebral palsy, with hypothesis to have more depressive symptom among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. The sample of examinees (between 23 and 62 age) was used in this research. The first subsample of examinees (N=23) was made of mothers (average 33±5.83) of children with cerebral palsy. The second subsample of examinees (N=12) was made of fathers of children with cerebral palsy (average 38±9.8). The third subsample of examinees (N=16) represented the control group, and it was made of mothers of children without disorders (average 38±6.57). For the purpose of quantitative measurement of depression, the Zung self-evaluated method for depression was applied. All data research were processed by parametric and nonparametric statistics. The frequencies and percents were also calculated, and Kruskal-Valis single-factor analysis of variants was applied for checking the hypothesis. According to the results of this research, it was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in the evaluation of depression between mothers and fathers of children with cerebral palsy, as well as there is no statistically significant difference in relation to mothers of children without disorders. HubMed – rehab


Preliminary clinical experience with hyaluronan anti-adhesion gel in arthroscopic arthrolysis for posttraumatic elbow stiffness.

J Orthop Traumatol. 2013 Mar 1;
Pederzini LA, Milandri L, Tosi M, Prandini M, Nicoletta F

BACKGROUND: Loss of motion of the elbow joint is a common finding after elbow trauma. It has been shown that arthroscopic treatment leads to excellent restoration of elbow motion, although it is still a demanding procedure. The aim of our cohort study was to assess clinical outcomes following treatment of posttraumatic elbow stiffness using arthroscopic arthrolysis with or without the associated use of a hyaluronan anti-adhesion gel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 36 consecutive patients undergoing elbow arthroscopic arthrolysis were enrolled: 17 patients in the hyaluronan gel group and 19 in the control group. The patients underwent prospective control visits 30 and 75 days after surgery. Functional outcome was measured by the range of motion and the Liverpool elbow score (LES), whereas pain and quality of life were evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the SF-36 questionnaire, respectively. RESULTS: The range of motion and the overall LES score increased over time in both groups. The mean increase over time was statistically significant (p < 0.001) in both groups and there was no difference between the groups. There was also no interaction between time and treatment. The percentage of patients who reported pain decreased significantly over time (p = 0.0419) in the hyaluronan-treated group (suggesting limited contractions and better comfort during rehabilitation), but not in the control group. The intensity of pain decreased significantly over time in both groups (p < 0.0001) without any significant difference between the groups. All the changes in patient quality of life as measured by the SF-36 questionnaire were similar for the two groups of patients. No adverse event or complication related to the application of hyaluronan gel occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary clinical experience showed promising results upon the use of hyaluronan gel, considering that it significantly reduced pain in the short term, facilitating a more comfortable rehabilitation. These findings should be confirmed by larger studies. HubMed – rehab