A Comparison of Schemas, Schema Modes and Childhood Traumas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Chronic Pain Disorder and Eating Disorders.

A Comparison of Schemas, Schema Modes and Childhood Traumas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Chronic Pain Disorder and Eating Disorders.

Psychopathology. 2013 May 16;
Voderholzer U, Schwartz C, Thiel N, Kuelz AK, Hartmann A, Scheidt CE, Schlegl S, Zeeck A

Background: In this study, we investigated early maladaptive schemas (EMS), schema modes and childhood traumas in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in contrast to patients with other Axis I disorders. Based on cognitive theories on OCD, our main research question was whether schemas belonging to the domain of ‘impaired autonomy and performance’ are more prevalent in OCD than in both eating disorders (ED) and chronic pain disorder (CPD). Sampling and Methods: EMS, schema modes and traumatic childhood experiences were measured in 60 patients with OCD, 41 with ED, 40 with CPD and 142 healthy controls. To analyze differences between the groups, MANCOVAs were conducted followed by deviation contrasts. Depression level, age and gender were considered as possible covariates. Results: OCD patients scored higher on 4 EMS, 2 of which belong to the domain ‘impaired autonomy and performance’. ED patients had higher scores in the EMS ’emotional inhibition’ and CPD patients on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscale ‘physical neglect’. Conclusions: These results suggest that there might be typical schema patterns associated with OCD and ED. We can also conclude that a higher prevalence of traumatic experiences does not necessarily coincide with more EMS and schema modes. HubMed – eating


Purging Behavior Modulates the Relationships of Hormonal and Behavioral Parameters in Women with Eating Disorders.

Neuropsychobiology. 2013 May 14; 67(4): 230-240
Grasa MD, Villarreal L, Granero R, Vilà R, Penelo E, Agüera Z, Jiménez-Murcia S, Romero MD, Menchón JM, Remesar X, Fernández-Aranda F, Alemany M

Background/Aims: There is ample consensus that there is a neurophysiological basis for eating disorders (ED). Traits of personality translate into behavioral traits, purging being a well-defined transversal example. The direct implication of steroid hormones on ED has seldom been studied, despite their effects on behavior. Methods: After psychological interview analysis, 57 ED female patients (31 purgative and 26 nonpurgative) and 17 female controls were studied. Metabolic parameters and analysis of androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid hormones were determined in parallel to the psychopathological profile (EDI-2 and SCL-90-R) and anthropometric measurements. Results: Psychometric tests showed clear differences between ED and controls, but there were few hormonal-metabolic significant differences. In purgative ED there were repeated (significant) positive correlations with corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) and negative correlations with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) versus eating and general psychopathology. In nonpurging ED there were positive correlations for deoxycortisol, free fatty acids and albumin and negative for aspartate aminotransferase and psychopathological traits. Conclusion: The data suggest that CBG/corticosteroids and sexual hormones/SHBG are involved in purging behavior and its psychopathology and severity scores. Correlations of selected psychometric data and the CBG/SHBG levels in purging may eventually result in clinical markers. This approach may provide additional clues for understanding the pathogenesis of ED. HubMed – eating


[Beauticians’ eating attitudes and body attitudes.]

Psychiatr Hung. 2013; 28(1): 70-76
Lukács-Márton R, Szabó P

Some professional groups (models, actresses, ballet dancers, jockeys and athletes) are considered as risk populations for eating disorders and body image disorders. Beauticians may be a possible risk group, as their work is closely related to beauty and fashion. Measures: Eating disorders were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Behaviour Severity Scale, body image measures included the Human Figure Drawings Test, the Body Dissatisfaction Subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Attitudes Test, and the Body Investment Scale. Results: Questionnaire data of 276 subjects were analysed. The study sample comprised 128 beauticians from Transylvania (5 males, 123 females). This group was compared with a control group consisting of 148 subjects (25 males, 123 females). Such weight reducing methods as dieting, exercise, the use of appetite suppressants and diuretics were significantly more prevalent in the beautician group. Mean total score and the scores of the Dieting subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the beautician group in comparison with the control group. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical eating disorders (2.4% subclinical bulimia nervosa and 1.6% subclinical anorexia nervosa) was significantly higher in the beautician group. Beauticians invest significantly (p < 0.0001) more money and time for body care. Conclusion: The above results suggest that working in the beauty industry may represent an increased risk of developing eating disorders. HubMed – eating


[Methodological background and descriptive features of the ESPAD 2011 Study (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs) in Hungary.]

Psychiatr Hung. 2013; 28(1): 30-38
Gyepesi A, Elekes Z, Domokos T, Demetrovics Z

Background and aims: The aim of the ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs) study – launched in 1995 and repeated in every four years – is to collect representative data on alcohol and drug consumtion patterns of the 16 year old population, in as many European countries as possible. Method: The survey followed standardized methodology to gain comparable data in every participating country. Students fill in the self-report questionnaire during a school lesson. Beside the compulsory core-question blocks, the Hungarian survey in 2011 contained questions on behavioral addictions (online gaming, internet, eating disorders and gambling) as well. All classes were included into the sample pool, where at least 10% of the students were born in 1995. Data collection took place between 1-20 March 2011. The sample was representative in terms of type of school; class and geographic location. Results: Data was gathered from 370 classes and resulted in 8570 questionnaires. Only 0,96 percent of the total collected data was unreliable. Obtained data is valid and reliable; and can be compared to data from previous years, as well as to data from other ESPAD countries. Representative data on behavioral addictions is highly valuable, because our current knowledge is limited on this domain. HubMed – eating