Upper Limb Joint Space Modeling of Stroke Induced Synergies Using Isolated and Voluntary Arm Perturbations.

Upper Limb Joint Space Modeling of Stroke Induced Synergies Using Isolated and Voluntary Arm Perturbations.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013 Jul 31;
Simkins M, Al-Rafai A, Rosen J

Among other diminished motor capabilities, survivors of a stroke often exhibit joint synergies. These synergies are stereotypically characterized by involuntary joint coactivation. With respect to the upper limbs, such synergies diminish coordination in reaching, pointing, and other daily tasks. The primary goal of this research is to model synergy and quantify it in a comprehensive and mathematically tractable form. A motion capture system was used to measure joint rotations from stroke survivors and control subjects. These data showed that joint synergies are non-unique and asymmetric. The model also provided a way to calculate joint combinations that result in maximum and minimum synergy. Beyond providing a more complete view of synergies, this approach could facilitate new ways to evaluate and treat stroke survivors. In particular, this approach may have applications in diagnostic and treatment algorithms for use in rehabilitation robots. HubMed – rehab

Corrective arthrodeses and osteotomies for post-traumatic hindfoot malalignment: indications, techniques, results.

Int Orthop. 2013 Aug 4;
Rammelt S, Zwipp H

Hindfoot malunions after fractures of the talus and calcaneus lead to severe disability and pain. Corrective osteotomies and arthrodeses aim at functional rehabilitation and reduction of pain resulting from post-traumatic arthritis, eccentric loading and impingement due to hindfoot malunion. Preoperative analysis should include the three-dimensional outline of the malunion, the presence of post-traumatic arthritis, non-union, or infection, the extent of any avascular necrosis or comorbidities. In properly selected, compliant patients with intact cartilage cover little or no, AVN, and adequate bone quality, a corrective joint-preserving osteotomy with secondary internal fixation may be carried out. In the majority of cases, realignment is augmented by arthrodesis for post-traumatic arthritis. Fusion is restricted to the affected joint(s) to minimise loss of function. Correction of the malunion is achieved by asymmetric joint resection, distraction and structural bone grafting with corrective osteotomies for severe axial malalignment. Bone grafting is also needed after resection of a fibrous non-union, sclerotic or necrotic bone. Numerous clinical studies have shown substantial functional improvement and high subjective satisfaction rates from pain reduction after corrective osteotomies and fusions for post-traumatic hindfoot malalignment. This article reviews the indications, techniques and results of corrective surgery after talar and calcaneal malunions and nonunions based on an easy-to-use classification. HubMed – rehab

Simultaneous Scalp Electroencephalography (EEG), Electromyography (EMG), and Whole-body Segmental Inertial Recording for Multi-modal Neural Decoding.

J Vis Exp. 2013;
Bulea TC, Kilicarslan A, Ozdemir R, Paloski WH, Contreras-Vidal JL

Recent studies support the involvement of supraspinal networks in control of bipedal human walking. Part of this evidence encompasses studies, including our previous work, demonstrating that gait kinematics and limb coordination during treadmill walking can be inferred from the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) with reasonably high decoding accuracies. These results provide impetus for development of non-invasive brain-machine-interface (BMI) systems for use in restoration and/or augmentation of gait- a primary goal of rehabilitation research. To date, studies examining EEG decoding of activity during gait have been limited to treadmill walking in a controlled environment. However, to be practically viable a BMI system must be applicable for use in everyday locomotor tasks such as over ground walking and turning. Here, we present a novel protocol for non-invasive collection of brain activity (EEG), muscle activity (electromyography (EMG)), and whole-body kinematic data (head, torso, and limb trajectories) during both treadmill and over ground walking tasks. By collecting these data in the uncontrolled environment insight can be gained regarding the feasibility of decoding unconstrained gait and surface EMG from scalp EEG. HubMed – rehab

[Comparison of development and mortality under domestic or institutional care with and without medical rehabilitation : The Hannover morbidity and mortality long-term care study.]

Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2013 Aug 3;
Seger W, Sittaro NA, Lohse R, Rabba J

Empirical data, representative of the total population, are necessary for medico-actuarial risk calculations. Our study compares mortalities of long-term care (LTC) patients who are covered by statutory health insurance with regard to age and distribution of care levels when in home or institutional care with a special focus on whether rehabilitative care was performed.The data of 88,575 LTC patients were analyzed longitudinally for 10 years, using routine data analyses on the files of the German Federal Health Insurance fund (average observation period 2.5 years, a total of 221,625 observation years). The numbers of LTC patients and their care levels while in home or institutional care were calculated, as were any changes to another care level or discontinuation of LTC benefits (as a result of the need for care falling below the eligibility criteria for care leveI or to death) during 1-10 years after the onset of LTC, always with respect to whether rehabilitative care had taken place or not. For the evaluation of care factors an indicator was developed.Total mortality was found to decline and reactivation to increase considerably for LTC patients after rehabilitation, basically irrespective of their age or care level and in home or institutional care settings as well. Ten years after the onset of care, 30.7?% of the patients with rehabilitation were still in nursing care, 9.8?% were reactivated and 59.5?% deceased. In contrast, only 9.2?% were still in nursing care, 3.7?% reactivated and 87.1?% deceased without rehabilitation. These results are irrespective of age distribution, care level, and residence in home or institutional care settings. The care status of patients, measured by the percentage in reactivation, care level I-III, and death, substantially depends on age at onset and care level and in addition on rehabilitative procedures. Hypotheses for further research are outlined.Rehabilitation has a clear-cut potential for life extension as well as reducing or detaining long-term care if applied to (LTC) patients. The group of rehabilitated LTC patients has a comparatively higher degree of reducing or resolving LTC up to a complete reactivation or prolonging of life in spite of care needed. A successful rehabilitative effect occurs over all age groups and all care levels during home care considerably as well as during institutional care to a lower extent. Differentiation between the age at onset of LTC, care level, and first year and follow-up mortalities is recommended as well as between rehabilitated and nonrehabilitated care patients when undertaking medico-actuarial calculations. HubMed – rehab