Addiction Rehab: Opioids in Chronic Noncancer Pain: More Faces From the Crowd.

Opioids in chronic noncancer pain: More faces from the crowd.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Pain Res Manag. 2012 Jul-Aug; 17(4): 263-75
Watson CP

The use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) remains very controversial. There are several randomized controlled trials, mostly in neuropathic pain, reporting efficacy and safety in the short term, but more long-term data are needed. Randomized controlled trials may be limited in providing data about the patients who benefit from often high-dose opioids over the long term. The present article provides details of these patients and adds to a previous case series.The present article contains 17 case reports of 11 CNCP conditions (followed to 2011) selected to illustrate specific issues from a survey of 84 patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids and followed every three months for a median of 11 years. The previous published survey of this group reported outcomes of pain severity, adverse effects, pain relief, satisfaction, mood, problematic opioid use, tolerance, physical dependency, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), immune status and sexual function. The outcome measures for that study included a numerical rating scale for pain, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Brief Pain Inventory Interference Scale, the Pain Disability Index and, for HRQL, the Short-Form Health Survey 12 version 2. Most patients in the total sample reported 50% or greater relief and a moderate improvement in disability. Scores for functional status and HRQL were not severely affected. Problematic use, tolerance and serious adverse effects, including constipation, were not major issues. These selected patient reports were chosen, not to illustrate optimal results, but rather important aspects of the diagnoses, opioids and doses, the paucity of intolerable adverse effects, particular issues (concurrent addiction history, bipolar disorder and combination therapy), disease-specific and other outcomes and duration of follow-up with complex pain problems.Opioids were found to be safe and useful in the long term for these particular patients, as well as in the larger group from which they originated.These 17 reports of patients with intractable CNCP treated with opioids with some success over many years puts a face on more of the participants in the larger survey of 84 subjects, suggesting that this approach is effective and safe for some patients over many years.
HubMed – addiction


Sensory modality of smoking cues modulates neural cue reactivity.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Aug 14;
Yalachkov Y, Kaiser J, Görres A, Seehaus A, Naumer MJ

RATIONALE: Behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the sensory modality of presentation modulates drug cue reactivity. OBJECTIVES: The present study on nicotine addiction tested whether neural responses to smoking cues are modulated by the sensory modality of stimulus presentation. METHODS: We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers while they viewed images of smoking paraphernalia and control objects and while they touched the same objects without seeing them. RESULTS: Haptically presented, smoking-related stimuli induced more pronounced neural cue reactivity than visual cues in the left dorsal striatum in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The severity of nicotine dependence correlated positively with the preference for haptically explored smoking cues in the left inferior parietal lobule/somatosensory cortex, right fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal cortex/cerebellum, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. CONCLUSIONS: These observations are in line with the hypothesized role of the dorsal striatum for the expression of drug habits and the well-established concept of drug-related automatized schemata, since haptic perception is more closely linked to the corresponding object-specific action pattern than visual perception. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that with the growing severity of nicotine dependence, brain regions involved in object perception, memory, self-processing, and motor control exhibit an increasing preference for haptic over visual smoking cues. This difference was not found for control stimuli. Considering the sensory modality of the presented cues could serve to develop more reliable fMRI-specific biomarkers, more ecologically valid experimental designs, and more effective cue-exposure therapies of addiction.
HubMed – addiction


Common Variants in HLA-DRA Gene are Associated with Alcohol Dependence in Two Caucasian Samples.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Aug 14;
Pan Y, Wang KS, Wang L, Wu LY

HLA-DRA gene polymorphisms might play an important role in alcohol dependence (AD). We examined genetic associations of 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the HLA-DRA gene with AD using two Caucasian samples-the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample (660 AD cases and 400 controls) and the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (623 cases and 1,016 controls). Logistic regression analysis using PLINK showed that 16 SNPs were associated with AD in the COGA sample and 13 SNPs were associated with AD in the SAGE sample (p?HubMed – addiction


Improved treatment of nicotine addiction and emerging pulmonary drug delivery.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Drug Discov Ther. 2012 Jun; 6(3): 123-32
Islam N, Rahman S

Nicotine addiction remains the leading cause of death and disease in developed and developing nations and a major cause of mortality around the world. Currently, nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), bupropion, and varenicline are approved by the regulatory agencies as first-line treatments for nicotine addiction. Emerging evidence indicates that varenicline and bupropion have some therapeutic limitations for treating nicotine addiction with oral route of administration. Thus, continued investigation of innovative drug delivery for nicotine addiction remains a critical priority. This review will discuss some novel strategies and future directions for pulmonary drug delivery, an emerging route of administration for smoking cessation. It is anticipated that the advancement of knowledge on pulmonary drug delivery will provide better management for nicotine addiction and other addictive disorders.
HubMed – addiction



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