Addiction Rehab: Nicotine Related Brain Activity: The Influence of Smoking History and Blood Nicotine Levels, an Exploratory Study.

Nicotine related brain activity: The influence of smoking history and blood nicotine levels, an exploratory study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Oct 29;
Yamamoto RT, Rohan ML, Goletiani N, Olson D, Peltier M, Renshaw PF, Mello NK

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to explore brain activity in nicotine-dependent men in response to acute intravenous nicotine using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI). METHODS: phMRI was used to evaluate brain activity in response to 1.5mg/70kg intravenous nicotine or saline. The nicotine and saline were administered on different visits. The time courses of individual subjects’ nicotine levels were used as regressors to assess neural activity relating to the infusions. The influence of smoking history and physiological measures on the response to nicotine were also investigated. RESULTS: Greater lifetime exposure to cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with higher peak serum nicotine levels. PhMRI analysis of the differential response of nicotine compared to the saline condition showed distinctive activation patterns when analyzed with the (a) nicotine time course, (b) nicotine time course controlling for smoking history (pack years), and (c) pack years controlling for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that smoking exposure history influences serum nicotine levels and the brain’s response to nicotine. Alterations in brain activity may be a result of vascular and neuro-adaptations involved in drug exposure and addiction.
HubMed – addiction


Using administrative health data to identify individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a comparison of algorithms.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2012 Nov 1;
Lin E, Balogh R, Cobigo V, Ouellette-Kuntz H, Wilton AS, Lunsky Y

BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high rates of physical and mental health problems; yet their health care is often inadequate. Information about their characteristics and health services needs is critical for planning efficient and equitable services. A logical source of such information is administrative health data; however, it can be difficult to identify cases with IDD in these data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate three algorithms for case finding of IDD in health administrative data. METHODS: The three algorithms were created following existing approaches in the literature which ranged between maximising sensitivity versus balancing sensitivity and specificity. The broad algorithm required only one IDD service contact across all available data and time periods, the intermediate algorithm added the restriction of a minimum of two physician visits while the narrow algorithm added a further restriction that the time period be limited to 2006 onward. The resulting three cohorts were compared according to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Comparisons on different subgroups for a hypothetical population of 50?000 individuals with IDD were also carried out: this information may be relevant for planning specialised treatment or support programmes. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of IDD per 100 were 0.80, 0.52 and 0.18 for the broad, intermediate and narrow algorithms, respectively. Except for ‘percentage with psychiatric co-morbidity’, the three cohorts had similar characteristics (standardised differences?HubMed – addiction


Estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR1) polymorphisms associated with idiopathic premature ovarian failure in Chinese women.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012 Nov 2;
Liu L, Tan R, Cui Y, Liu J, Wu J

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between Estrogen receptor ? gene (ESR1) polymorphisms and idiopathic premature ovarian failure (POF) in Chinese women. Methods: 155 idiopathic POF and 150 healthy controls were recruited in this study. All subjects were analyzed at the PvuII and XbaI loci of the ESR1 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The frequency of the P allele of the PvuII polymorphisms was 38.1% in POF women, which was significantly higher than controls (28.0%) (p = 0.008). And for the XbaI polymorphisms, the X allele was 21.0% in POF patients, compared to 13.3% in control women (p = 0.013). Carriers of the PP genotype had higher increased risk of POF than those of the pp genotypes (p = 0.011), whereas in three genotypes of the XbaI polymorphisms, no difference was found in the prediction value of POF. In addiction, the P-X haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk for idiopathic POF. Conclusion: These data suggest that the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms of ESR1 gene are associated with POF, which may be a potential genetic risk factor of idiopathic POF. More researches are needed to determine whether the findings are generalizable to other populations.
HubMed – addiction



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