Addiction Rehab: Facilitated Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference With Tat-GluA2(3Y) Interference Peptide.

Facilitated Extinction of Morphine Conditioned Place Preference with Tat-GluA2(3Y) Interference Peptide.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Behav Brain Res. 2012 May 22;
Dias C, Wang YT, Phillips AG

Neuroplasticity including long-term depression (LTD) has been implicated in both learning processes and addiction. LTD can be blocked by intravenous administration of the interference peptide Tat-GluA2(3Y) that prevents regulated endocytosis of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor. In this study, Tat-GluA2(3Y) was used to assess the role of LTD in the induction, expression, extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). CPP was established in rats by pairing morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline with a specific environmental context using a balanced protocol. Tat-GluA2(3Y) (0; 1.5; 2.25 micromol/kg, i.v.), scrambled peptide (Tat-GluA2(Sc)), or vehicle was administered during the acquisition phase or prior to the test for CPP. Tat-GluA2(3Y) had no effect on the induction or initial expression of morphine-induced CPP. Rats that received Tat-GluA2(3Y) or Tat-GluA2(Sc) during acquisition were subsequently tested for 11 consecutive days in order to extinguish morphine CPP. CPP was then reinstated by an injection of morphine (5mg/kg, i.p.). Co-administration of morphine and Tat-GluA2(3Y) during acquisition greatly facilitated extinction of CPP without affecting morphine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Using an intermittent retest schedule with bi-weekly tests to measure the maintenance of CPP, Tat-GluA2(3Y) during the acquisition phase had no effect on the maintenance of CPP. We propose that co-administration of Tat-GluA2(3Y) with morphine during acquisition of CPP weakens the association between morphine and contextual cues leading to rapid extinction of morphine CPP with repeated daily testing.
HubMed – addiction


The neuroeconomics of nicotine dependence: A preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study of delay discounting of monetary and cigarette rewards in smokers.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Psychiatry Res. 2012 May 25;
Mackillop J, Amlung MT, Wier LM, David SP, Ray LA, Bickel WK, Sweet LH

Neuroeconomics integrates behavioral economics and cognitive neuroscience to understand the neurobiological basis for normative and maladaptive decision making. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity that reflects capacity to delay gratification and has been consistently associated with nicotine dependence. This preliminary study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine delay discounting for money and cigarette rewards in 13 nicotine dependent adults. Significant differences between preferences for smaller immediate rewards and larger delayed rewards were evident in a number of regions of interest (ROIs), including the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insular cortex, middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Significant differences between money and cigarette rewards were generally lateralized, with cigarette choices associated with left hemisphere activation and money choices associated with right hemisphere activation. Specific ROI differences included the posterior parietal cortex, medial and middle frontal gyrus, ventral striatum, temporoparietal cortex, and angular gyrus. Impulsivity as measured by behavioral choices was significantly associated with both individual ROIs and a combined ROI model. These findings provide initial evidence in support of applying a neuroeconomic approach to understanding nicotine dependence.
HubMed – addiction


Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012 May 23;
Cowan JA, Devine CM

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. METHODS: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly nutrition and food classes and food environment changes to increase healthful food choices. The main outcomes of this controlled, quasi-experimental, pre-post evaluation study were diet, body mass index, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Forty-three (42%) participants with complete data reported significantly greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower intakes of calories from sweets and desserts, and a reduction in waist circumference (P ? .05) following the intervention, compared to the control period. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: An educational and environmental intervention can be effective in promoting positive dietary behavior and reducing waist circumference among men in residential treatment. These results need to be confirmed in a larger, randomized trial.
HubMed – addiction


The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: A STRUCTURAL VECTOR AUTOREGRESSION ANALYSIS.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 May 28;
Langley TE, McNeill A, Lewis S, Szatkowski L, Quinn C

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of tobacco control media campaigns and pharmaceutical company-funded advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation activity. DESIGN: Multiple time series analysis using structural vector autoregression, January 2002-May 2010. SETTING: England and Wales. DATA SOURCES: Tobacco control campaign data from the Central Office of Information. Commercial NRT campaign data. Data on calls to the NHS stop smoking helpline from the Department of Health. Point of Sale data on over-the-counter (OTC) sales of NRT. Prescribing data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a database of UK primary care records. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly calls to NHS stop smoking helpline and monthly rates of OTC sales and prescribing of NRT. FINDINGS: A 1% increase in tobacco control television ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, was associated with a statistically significant 0.08% increase in calls in the same month (p=0.007), and no statistically significant effect in subsequent months. Tobacco control TVRs were not associated with OTC NRT sales or prescribed NRT. NRT advertising TVRs had a significant effect on NRT sales which became non-significant in the seasonally adjusted model, and no significant effect on prescribing or calls. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at triggering quitting behaviour than pharmaceutical company NRT campaigns. Any effect of such campaigns on quitting behaviour seems to be restricted to the month of the campaign, suggesting such campaigns need to be sustained over time.
HubMed – addiction


It's either the drink or the dole: Go into rehab or lose benefits, alcoholics

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

'Under universal credit we want to do more to encourage and support claimants into rehabilitation for addiction and start them on the road to recovery and, eventually, work. Getting people into work and encouraging independence is our ultimate goal.
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