Addiction Rehab: Chronic Escalating Cocaine Exposure, Abstinence/withdrawal, and Chronic Re-Exposure: Effects on Striatal Dopamine and Opioid Systems in C57BL/6J Mice.

Chronic escalating cocaine exposure, abstinence/withdrawal, and chronic re-exposure: Effects on striatal dopamine and opioid systems in C57BL/6J mice.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuropharmacology. 2012 Nov 16;
Zhang Y, Schlussman SD, Rabkin J, Butelman ER, Ho A, Kreek MJ

Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disease with periods of chronic escalating self-exposure, separated by periods of abstinence/withdrawal of varying duration. Few studies compare such cycles in preclinical models. This study models an “addiction-like cycle” in mice to determine neurochemical/molecular alterations that underlie the chronic, relapsing nature of this disease. Groups of male C57BL/6J mice received acute cocaine exposure (14-day saline/14-day withdrawal /13-day saline + 1-day cocaine), chronic cocaine exposure (14 day cocaine) or chronic re-exposure (14-day cocaine/14-day withdrawal /14-day cocaine). Escalating-dose binge cocaine (15-30 mg/kg/injection x 3/day, i.p. at hourly intervals) or saline (14-day saline) was administered, modeling initial exposure. In “re-exposure” groups, after a 14-day injection-free period (modeling abstinence/withdrawal), mice that had received cocaine were re-injected with 14-day escalating-dose binge cocaine, whereas controls received saline. Microdialysis was conducted on the 14(th) day of exposure or re-exposure to determine striatal dopamine content. Messenger RNA levels of preprodynorphin (Pdyn), dopamine D1 (Drd1) and D2 (Drd2) in the caudate putamen were determined by real-time PCR. Basal striatal dopamine levels were lower in mice after 14-day escalating exposure or re-exposure than in those in the acute cocaine group and controls. Pdyn mRNA levels were higher in the cocaine groups than in controls. Long-term adaptation was observed across the stages of this addiction-like cycle, in that the effects of cocaine on dopamine levels were increased after re-exposure compared to exposure. Changes in striatal dopaminergic responses across chronic escalating cocaine exposure and re-exposure are a central feature of the neurobiology of relapsing addictive states.
HubMed – addiction


Risks, benefits and survival strategies-views from female sex workers in Savannakhet, Laos.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

BMC Public Health. 2012 Nov 20; 12(1): 1004
Phrasisombath K, Faxelid E, Sychareun V, Thomsen S

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and encounter socio-economic and health problems, including STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy and complications from unsafe abortion, stigma, violence, and drug addiction. Reducing risks associated with sex work requires an understanding of the social and cultural context in which sex workers live and work. This study aimed to explore the working environment and perceived risks among FSWs in Savannakhet province in Laos. METHODS: Five focus group discussions (FGDs) and seven interviews were conducted with FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Laos. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed text. RESULTS: The results revealed that the FSWs were aware of risks but they also talked about benefits related to their work. The risks were grouped into six categories: STIs/HIV, unintended pregnancy, stigma, violence, being cheated, and social and economic insecurity. The reported benefits were financial security, fulfilling social obligations, and sexual pleasure. The FSWs reported using a number of strategies to reduce risks and increase benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The desire to be self-sufficient and earn as much money as possible put the FSWs in disadvantaged and vulnerable situations. Fear of financial insecurity, obligations to support one’s family and the need to secure the future influenced FSWs’ decisions to have safe or unsafe sex. The FSWs were, however, not only victims. They also had some control over their lives and working environment, with most viewing their work as an easy and good way of earning money.
HubMed – addiction


Deficits in social perception in opioid maintenance patients, abstinent opioid users and non-opioid users.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Nov 16;
McDonald S, Darke S, Kaye S, Torok M

AIMS: This study aimed to compare emotion perception and social inference in opioid maintenance patients with abstinent ex-users and non-heroin using controls, and determine whether any deficits in could be accounted for by cognitive deficits and/or risk factors for brain damage. DESIGN: Case control. PARTICIPANTS: 125 maintenance patients (MAIN), 50 abstinent opiate users (ABST) and 50 matched controls (CON). MEASUREMENTS: The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) was used to measure emotion perception and social inference. Measures were also taken of executive function, working memory, information processing speed, verbal/ non-verbal learning, and psychological distress. FINDINGS: After adjusting for age, sex, pre-morbid IQ and psychological distress, the MAIN group was impaired relative to CON (?=-.19, p<.05) and ABST (?=-.19, p<.05) on emotion perception and relative to CON (?=-.25, p<.001) and ABST (?=-.24, p<.01) on social inference. In neither case did the CON and ABST groups differ. For both emotion perception (p<.001) and social inference (p<.001) premorbid IQ was a significant independent predictor. Cognitive function was a major predictor of poor emotion perception (?=-.44, p<.001) and social inference (?=-.48, p<.001). Poor emotion recognition was also predicted by number of heroin overdoses (?=-.14, p<.05). Neither time in treatment or type of maintenance medication (methadone or buprenorphine) were related to performance. CONCLUSIONS: People in opioid maintenance treatment may have an impaired capacity for emotion perception and ability to make inferences about social situations. HubMed – addiction



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