Complete Sequence of Broad-Host-Range Plasmid pNOR-2000 Harbouring the Metallo-?-Lactamase Gene blaVIM-2 From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

Complete sequence of broad-host-range plasmid pNOR-2000 harbouring the metallo-?-lactamase gene blaVIM-2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jan 25;
Bonnin RA, Poirel L, Nordmann P, Eikmeyer FG, Wibberg D, Pühler A, Schlüter A

OBJECTIVES: Metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) are increasingly reported not only in Enterobacteriaceae but also in Pseudomonas spp. These enzymes hydrolyse all ?-lactams, including carbapenems, and are not inhibited by ?-lactamase inhibitors. The aim of this study was to fully characterize a plasmid bearing the bla(VIM-2) MBL gene identified in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate. METHODS: This plasmid was fully sequenced by high-density pyrosequencing and annotated using the GenDB version 2.0 annotation tool. The evaluation of the broad-host-range replication of the pNOR-2000 replication initiation gene was assessed using electro-transformation and conjugation assays and the distribution of this replicase gene was evaluated using an international collection of VIM-producing Pseudomonas spp. RESULTS: Analysis of the 21?880 bp sequence of pNOR-2000 revealed a truncated and non-functional transfer operon, in addition to novel genes encoding a serine protease and toxin/antitoxin addiction systems. This broad-host-range plasmid shares high gene synteny with part of the mobile genomic island pKLC102 identified in P. aeruginosa strain C. CONCLUSIONS: We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pNOR-2000 from a P. aeruginosa clinical isolate harbouring the integron-located MBL gene bla(VIM-2).
HubMed – addiction


Treatment of internet addiction: A meta-analysis.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Clin Psychol Rev. 2013 Jan 5; 33(2): 317-329
Winkler A, Dörsing B, Rief W, Shen Y, Glombiewski JA

Internet addiction (IA) has become a widespread and problematic phenomenon. Little is known about the efficacy of treatment approaches for IA. Therefore, our objective was to perform an effect size analysis of psychological and pharmacological interventions for IA. We conducted a literature search using PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PQDT OPEN, WorldCat, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, and manual searches. Our meta-analysis was based on 16 studies, covered a total of 670 participants, and used a random effects model. Special emphasis was given to the inclusion of studies from “non-western” countries. Effect size estimates suggest that psychological and pharmacological interventions were highly effective for improving IA (g=1.61), time spent online (g=0.94), depression (g=0.90) and anxiety (g=1.25) from pre- to post-treatment in the overall sample. Moderator analyses revealed that studies including individual treatments, a higher number of female participants, older patients, or a North-American sample had larger effect sizes for some outcome variables. Most effect sizes were high, robust, unrelated to study quality or design, and maintained over follow-up. Due to a small number of included studies and methodological limitations the results of this meta-analysis should be regarded as preliminary.
HubMed – addiction


Acute cocaine increases phosphorylation of CaMKII and GluA1 in the dorsolateral striatum of drug naïve rats, but not cocaine-experienced rats.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neurosci Lett. 2013 Jan 23;
White SL, Schmidt HD, Vassoler FM, Pierce RC

Transport of GluA1-containing AMPA glutamate receptors to synapses in the nucleus accumbens, a process that involves phosphorylation of key serine residues by CaMKII, is associated with the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. A growing body of evidence indicates that the dorsal striatum contributes to aspects of cocaine addiction. However, the potential role of CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits in the dorsolateral (DL) striatum during cocaine reinstatement has not been examined. In this study, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and were partnered with saline-yoked rats that received injections of saline. Following extinction, each pair of rats received either a systemic priming injection of cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. As expected, cocaine-experienced rats displayed robust reinstatement of cocaine seeking in response to a challenge injection, whereas yoked saline controls did not. The DL striatum was dissected immediately following the reinstatement test session. Results from Western blotting experiments showed increased pGluA1-ser831 and pCaMKII-thr286 in the DL striatum of saline-yoked rats given an acute injection of cocaine. This effect was absent in cocaine-experienced rats that received a saline injection, and no changes were observed following a priming injection of cocaine in cocaine-experienced rats. These results indicate that acute exposure to cocaine in drug naïve rats increased CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors in the DL striatum, an effect that was not observed during cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. It is possible; therefore, that increased phosphorylation of CaMKII and GluA1 following acute cocaine is a compensatory mechanism in the DL striatum.
HubMed – addiction


Individual and combined effects of rhynchophylline and ketamine on proliferation, NMDAR1 and GluA2/3 protein expression in PC12 cells.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Fitoterapia. 2013 Jan 22;
Zhou JY, Chen J, Zhou SW, Mo ZX

Rhynchophylline is an active component of the Uncaria species, which is a member of the Rubiaceae family. Our studies show that the downregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit GluN2B expression in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampal CA1 area by rhynchophylline is beneficial for the treatment of psychological dependence on amphetamines. The individual and combined effects of rhynchophylline and ketamine on proliferation and GluN1 and GluA2/3 protein expression in PC12 cells were investigated. PC12 cells were differentiated into neuron-like cells by treatment with nerve growth factor (50ng/mL). After treatment for 48h, differentiated PC12 cell proliferation and GluN1 and GluA2/3 protein expression were analyzed. The viability of PC12 cells was reduced by ketamine at doses of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00mmol/L, with the viability of cells treated with 1.50 and 2.00mmol/L of ketamine significantly lower than that of the control cells. However, PC12 cells treated with rhynchophylline showed no toxicity at doses of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, or 1.00mmol/L. While GluA2/3 protein expression was upregulated by ketamine, it was not influenced by rhynchophylline. GluN1 protein expression was downregulated by rhynchophylline (1mmol/L), while treatment with ketamine, either alone or with rhynchophylline, had no effect. These findings demonstrate that rhynchophylline suppresses GluA2/3 expression in ketamine-induced PC12 cells and downregulates GluN1 expression. Ketamine’s lack of effect on GluN1 expression offers a partial explanation for ketamine addiction and the anti-addictive properties of rhynchophylline.
HubMed – addiction



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